Eduction industrial power system (us wind technology) electricity word search pdf


Windmills have been used to generate power for hundreds of years. The first windmills were developed to automate the tasks of grain-grinding and water-pumping. The earliest-known design of a windmill was a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) system developed in Persia about 500-900 A.D. Subsequently, the windmill spread from Persia to the surrounding areas in the Middle East Delta and to Europe, where the Dutch introduced the first horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). In the 1800s, windmills were additionally being used for the generation of electricity. By 2012, wind energy powered an estimated 15 million homes in the United States of America, and became the primary source of renewable electricity.

More recently, dozens of innovators have tried various models of wind turbines, all but a few based on the Dutch horizontal axis grinding mills. One designer after another has copied the horizontal system trying to adapt them to a vertical axis system. Vertical-axis designers, instead of innovating blade systems fitting this system, became entangled with drag and lift aspects of HAWT blade systems, trying to adapt them to vertical axis configuration. In recent decades, two VAWT designs were tried: Savonius wind turbines; and Darrieus wind turbines.

Darrieus wind turbines utilize a number of curved aerofoil blades mounted on a vertical rotating shaft or framework. However, the use of Darrieus wind turbines have lagged behind in real-world energy production, due to design challenges and limitations.

Neither of the Darrieus or Savonius wind turbines, nor other similar designs, have led to an acceptable efficiency and practicality level required for commercial power production. Vertical axis units tried in high-rise buildings reflected in some recent patents have not resulted in a promising as they have not been able to supply the building power needs alone. Lately a well-financed team with ample budget tried to adopt the best of available techniques of this kind to a high rise in Bahrain, only to disappointing results reflected in a report to the CTBUH 2010 World conference in Mumbai, entitled “Large Scale Building-integrated Wind Turbines”.

It is interesting to note historically how windmill/wind turbine technology took a wrong turn to end up where it is today. In 1919 the physicist Albert Betz of Germany showed that no more than 59.3% of the kinetic energy of the wind forcing on blades of a HAWT could be captured. This sets a serious limit on HAWT systems. Despite this, designers continued to copy the old Dutch horizontal shaped blades, which has led to today’s super-sized inefficient systems which, despite subsidies, barely produce profitable commercial power. HAWT’s became the mainstream technology. Producers, instead of working on innovative technology to solve the wind speed problem, worked around it by resorting to supersized towers and blades.

Presently 1.5 to 2 million dollars per MW installed HAWT systems with production cost of roughly $64-95/MWh. The federal production tax credit (PTC) currently provides 2.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of a privately owned wind turbine‘s production for ten years. At the federal level, the production or investment tax credit and double-declining accelerated depreciation can pay for two-thirds of a wind power project. Additional state incentives, such as guaranteed markets and exemption from property taxes, can pay for another 10%. In California, in 2014, wind farms generated 13.7 TWh from 6,200 MW of installed capacity. This results in a fleet-wide yield of 2,200 kWh/kW/yr.

1. The wind industry having HAWT turbine as its main means of energy production has a very low capacity credit, its ability to replace other power sources. In UK, which is the windiest country in Europe, with 25,000 MW of wind power has a capacity credit of only 16%, while credit capacity in Germany is 14%, and 10% for New York State.

3. The centrifugal force on the spinning blades increases as the square of the rotation speed. This makes horizontal axis structure sensitive to over-speed. Therefore, the degree of backup is much higher than design of this invention. According to Eon Netz, one of four major German grids, back-up requirements for German wind-operators has been in excess of 80%. This amounts to excessive capital requirement.

5. Units have to be placed where sufficient wind flow exists. Instead of adopting innovative technologies developers resorted to go to high altitudes. They had to place a 56-ton nacelle, 135 tons of blade assembly on 76 tons of tower (total of 267 tons), installing on 1000 tons of concrete to produce 1.5 nominal MW of power, yielding substantially lower real power at user or transmission end.

8. HAWT require an additional yaw control mechanism to turn the blades toward the wind. When the turbine turns to face the wind, the rotating blades act like a gyroscope. This cyclic twisting can quickly fatigue and crack the blade roots, hub and axle of the turbines.

9. Except for few gearless designs, most HAWT systems engage a gearbox, which adds to serious maintenance problems in severe cold weather conditions, as well as costs for stronger towers in which to place gears and generators at high elevations.

10. To avoid buckling, doubling the tower height generally requires doubling the diameter of the tower as well, increasing the amount of material by a factor of at least four. Maintenance record statistics field survey indicate that one out of each 150 blades breaks under cyclic fatigue.

12. Constant change in the degree of blade pitch on these turbines is the cause of audible noise on the wind farms. Furthermore mast height makes them obtrusively visible across large areas disrupting the appearance of the landscape, environmental problems which has put major limitations for locating wind farms.

The present invention is particularly suited to overcome those problems which remain in the art in a manner not previously known or contemplated. It is accordingly an object of the invention to provide an eduction industrial power system including one or more vertical-axis wind turbine power plants. Wind is accelerated through a multi-floor eductor of the power plant. In one particular embodiment, each floor of the eductor is configured with a constricted portion designed to increase the air speed through the eductor, such that low speed winds enter the eductor and much higher speed winds exit it. In this embodiment, a plurality of rotor-blade assemblies are disposed in the constricted portion of each floor of the multi-floor eductor, and are mounted to, and rotate, a shared vertical-axis rotor shaft. Rotation of the shaft generates electricity, via a generator. This electricity can be stored, used or channeled to an electrical grid, as desired.

Although the invention is illustrated and described herein as embodied in an eduction industrial power system, it is nevertheless not intended to be limited to the details shown, since various modifications and structural changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit of the invention and within the scope and range of equivalents of the claims.

The construction and method of operation of the invention, however, together with additional objects and advantages thereof will be best understood from the following description of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The foregoing background, as well as the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments, is better understood when read in conjunction with the appended drawings. For the purpose of illustrating the invention, there is shown in the drawings an exemplary embodiment that is presently preferred, it being understood however, that the invention is not limited to the specific methods and instrumentality\’s disclosed. Additionally, like reference numerals represent like items throughout the drawings. In the drawings: