-En – wiktionary electricity magnetism and electromagnetism

• Syllable loss may be habitually prevented to avoid merging with more deeply entrenched inflections, such as for keeping the generic inflection lightening /ˈlaɪt.n̩.ɪŋ/ from being pronounced identically to the established term lightning /ˈlaɪt.nɪŋ/ (notice the e is no longer written), even if they both independently derived from a combination of lighten + -ing.

• But syllable loss may resume with inflections that are not in danger of merging with an established word, such as enlightening, which can be pronounced /ɛnˈlaɪt.n̩.ɪŋ/ or /ɛnˈlaɪt.nɪŋ/ because enlightning is not a common word outside of slang.

From Middle English -n, -en, past participle ending of strong verbs (compare Middle English take(n), took, taken ( “ take, took, taken ” )), from Old Norse -inn, past participle ending of strong verbs (compare Old Norse taka, tók, tekinn ( “ take, took, taken ” )). From Proto-Norse *-īna- ( *-īna- ), from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz (compare Etymology 4, below). Replaced the native past participle ending of strong verbs (from Old English -en) in some words, which had weakened to -e or disappeared (compare Southern Middle English do(n), dud(e), ydo ( “ do, did, done ” )), but not in others (compare cume(n), com, ycume ( “ come, came, come ” )), from Proto-Germanic *-anaz, from Proto-Indo-European *-nós.

Some linguistic writing on English, such as The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar, uses -en as the name of an abstract morpheme which forms the past participle of all English verbs, even those which do not actually contain the suffix -en, such as cook + -en → cooked.

• ( personal ) Forms the impersonal potential present forms of verbs, appended to the infinitive, followed by the potential mood marker -ne-. No changes in infinitives of verbs that end in one a/ ä, except for consonant gradation in verbs ending with -da/ -dä and the doubled t in verbs ending with a vowel and -ta/ -tä. This -en is preceded by the mood marker -ne-.

juosta + -ne- + -en → juostaneen näh dä + -ne- + -en → näh täneen halu ta + -ne- + -en → halu ttaneen In verbs ending in -oa/ -öä or -ua/ -yä, the beginning stem is followed by -tta-/ -ttä, the mood marker -ne- and then by this — consonant gradation occurs.

sanoa, stem sano- + -tta- + -ne- + -en → sanottaneen ke rtoa, stem ker- + -to- → – ro- + -tta + -en → ke rrottaneen huolestua, stem huolestu- + -tta- + -ne- + -en → huolestuttaneen saa pua, stem saa- + -pu- → – vu- + -tta- + -ne- + -en → saa vuttaneen säilöä, stem säilö- + -ttä- + -ne- + -en → säilöttäneen säilyä, stem säily- + -ttä- + -ne- + -en → säilyttäneen häi pyä, stem häi- + -py- → – vy- + -ttä- + -ne- + -en → häi vyttäneen In verbs ending in -aa/ -ää or -ea/ -eä, the beginning stem is followed by -etta-, the mood marker -ne- and then by this — consonant gradation occurs.

paistaa, stem paist- + -etta- + -ne- + -en → paistettaneen laskea, stem lask- + -etta- + -ne- + -en → laskettaneen iskeä, stem isk- + -että- + -ne- + -en → iskettäneen lai ttaa, stem lait- (another t disappears) + -etta- + -ne- + -en → laitettaneen vaih taa, stem vaih- + -t- → -d- + -etta- + -en- → vaih dettaneen

• ( third-person possessive suffix variant ) When the third-person possessive suffix -nsa/ -nsä is appended to nouns that are in singular and plural allative and translative and plural comitative, the S and A/ Ä are very often omitted from the suffix and the last E of the case suffix preceding the remaining N is doubled — resulting in this -en. In standard Finnish, both the "full" form and the shortened form are acceptable. This same omission takes very often place also in the long first infinitives, used in a shortened sentence expressing "(in order) to do" (see the meanings of -nsa and -nsä):