Energy efficiency in transportation – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia electricity and circuits class 6 pdf

A relatively light and slow vehicle with low-friction tires and an efficient chain-driven drivetrain, the bicycle is one of the most energy-efficient forms of transport. Electricity usage calculator kwh Compared with walking, a 64 kg (140 lb) cyclist riding at 16 km/h (10 mph) requires about half the food energy per unit distance: 43 kcal/mi, 27 kcal/km or 3.1 kW·h (11 MJ) per 100 km. Arkansas gas association [7] This converts to about 732 mpg -US (0.321 L/100 km; 879 mpg -imp). Gas in babies treatment [11] This figure depends on the speed and mass of the rider: greater speeds give higher air drag and heavier riders consume more energy per unit distance. A motorized bicycle allows human power and the assistance of a 49 cm 3 (3.0 cu in) engine, giving a range of 160 to 200 mpg -US (1.5–1.2 L/100 km; 190–240 mpg -imp). I gas shares [ citation needed] Electric pedal-assisted bikes run on as little as 1.0 kW·h (3.6 MJ) per 100 km, [ citation needed] while maintaining speeds in excess of 30 km/h (19 mph). Gas city indiana newspaper [ citation needed] These best-case figures rely on a human doing 70% of the work, with around 3.6 MJ (1.0 kW·h) per 100 km coming from the motor. Gas pump icon Human power [ edit ] To be thorough, a comparison must also consider the energy costs of producing, transporting and packaging of fuel (food or fossil fuel), the energy incurred in disposing of exhaust waste, and the energy costs of manufacturing the vehicle. Bp gas locations This last can be significant given that walking requires little or no special equipment, while automobiles, for example, require a great deal of energy to produce and have relatively short lifespans.

British gas jokes In addition, any comparison of electric vehicles and liquid-fuelled vehicles must include the fuel consumed in the power station to generate the electricity. Electricity sources In the UK for instance the efficiency of the electricity generation and distribution system is around 0.40. Electricity and circuits class 6 pdf Automobiles [ edit ] Automobile fuel efficiency is most commonly expressed in terms of the volume of fuel consumed per one hundred kilometres (L/100 km), but in some countries (including the USA, UK and India) it is more commonly expressed in terms of the distance per volume fuel consumed (km/L or miles per US or imperial gallon). Electricity word search ks2 This is complicated by the different energy content of fuels such as petrol and diesel. Gas mask tattoo The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) states that the energy content of unleaded gasoline is 115,000 British thermal unit (BTU) per US gallon (32 MJ/L) compared to 130,500 BTU per US gallon (36.4 MJ/L) for diesel.

Gas mask ark [12] A second important consideration is the energy costs of producing energy. Basic electricity quizlet Bio-fuels, electricity and hydrogen, for instance, have significant energy inputs in their production. Electricity youtube billy elliot Because of this, the 50–70% efficiency of hydrogen production has to be combined with the vehicle efficiency to yield net efficiency. La gastronomia [13] A third consideration to take into account is the occupancy rate of the vehicle.

Gas 10 8 schlauchadapter As the number of passengers per vehicle increases the consumption per unit distance per vehicle increases. Electricity word search answer key However this increase is slight compared to the reduction in consumption per unit distance per passenger.

Electricity and magnetism notes We can compare, for instance, the estimated average occupancy rate of about 1.3 passengers per car in the San Francisco Bay Area [14] to the 2006 UK estimated average of 1.58. Gas tax in new jersey [15] Finally, vehicle energy efficiency calculations would be misleading without factoring the energy cost of producing the vehicle itself. Gas 02 This initial energy cost can of course be depreciated over the life of the vehicle to calculate an average energy efficiency over its effective life span. Kite electricity generation In other words, vehicles that take a lot of energy to produce and are used for relatively short periods will require a great deal more energy over their effective lifespan than those that do not, and are therefore much less energy efficient than they may otherwise seem.

Electricity 101 episode 1 Compare, for example, walking, which requires no special equipment at all, and an automobile, produced in and shipped from another country, and made from parts manufactured around the world from raw materials and minerals mined and processed elsewhere again, and used for a limited number of years. Driving practices and vehicles can be modified to improve their energy efficiency by about 15%. O gastronomo buffet [16] [17] Example consumption figures [ edit ] The mass of an aircraft can be reduced by using light-weight materials such as titanium, carbon fiber and other composite plastics.

Locate a gas station near me Expensive materials may be used, if the reduction of mass justifies the price of materials through improved fuel efficiency. Q gas station The improvements achieved in fuel efficiency by mass reduction, reduces the amount of fuel that needs to be carried. Gas after eating This further reduces the mass of the aircraft and therefore enables further gains in fuel efficiency.

La gastritis For example, the Airbus A380 design includes multiple light-weight materials. Airbus has showcased wingtip devices (sharklets or winglets) that can achieve 3.5 percent reduction in fuel consumption.

E sampark electricity bill payment [35] [36] There are wingtip devices on the Airbus A380. Electricity joules Further developed Minix winglets have been said to offer 6 percent reduction in fuel consumption.

Gas vs electric oven cost [37] Winglets at the tip of an aircraft wing smooth out the wing-tip vortex (reducing the aircraft’s wing drag) and can be retrofitted to any airplane. Gas vs electric oven review [37] NASA and Boeing are conducting tests on a 500 lb (230 kg) ” blended wing” aircraft. Gas vs electric water heater This design allows for greater fuel efficiency since the whole craft produces lift, not just the wings. Gas out game directions [38] The blended wing body (BWB) concept offers advantages in structural, aerodynamic and operating efficiencies over today’s more conventional fuselage-and-wing designs.

Gaston y la agrupacion santa fe These features translate into greater range, fuel economy, reliability and life cycle savings, as well as lower manufacturing costs. Electricity notes physics [39] [40] NASA has created a cruise efficient STOL (CESTOL) concept. Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Applied Materials Research (IFAM) have researched a shark skin imitating paint that would reduce drag through a riblet effect.

Electricity notes class 10 pdf [41] Aircraft are a major potential application for new technologies such as aluminium metal foam and nanotechnology such as the shark skin imitating paint. Propfan propulsors are a more fuel efficient technology than jets or turboprops, but turboprops have an optimum speed below about 450 mph (700 km/h). 1 unit electricity price india [42] This speed is less than used with jets by major airlines today. Electricity per kwh calculator However, the decrease in speed reduces drag. Ogasco abu dhabi With the current [ needs update] high price for jet fuel and the emphasis on engine/airframe efficiency to reduce emissions, there is renewed interest in the propfan concept for jetliners that might come into service beyond the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350XWB.

Electricity kwh calculator For instance, Airbus has patented aircraft designs with twin rear-mounted counter-rotating propfans. Gas in babies home remedies [43] NASA has conducted an Advanced Turboprop Project (ATP), where they researched a variable pitch propfan that produced less noise and achieved high speeds. • The fleet of 244 40-foot (12 m) 1982 New Flyer trolley buses in local service with BC Transit in Vancouver, Canada, in 1994/95 used 35,454,170 kWh for 12,966,285 vehicle km, or 9.84 MJ/vehicle km. Gas works park seattle Exact ridership on trolleybuses is not known, but with all 34 seats filled this equates to 0.32 MJ/passenger km. Gasco abu dhabi email address It is quite common to see people standing on Vancouver trolleybuses.

Hair electricity dance moms This is a service with many stops per kilometre; part of the reason for the efficiency is the use of regenerative braking. • A commuter service in Santa Barbara, California, USA, found average diesel bus efficiency of 6.0 mpg -US (39 L/100 km; 7.2 mpg -imp) (using MCI 102DL3 buses). Gas x breastfeeding side effects With all 55 seats filled this equates to 330 passenger mpg; with 70% filled, 231 passenger mpg. Origin electricity login [68] • In 2011 the fleet of 752 buses in the city of Lisbon had an average speed of 14.4 km/h and an average occupancy of 20.1 passengers per vehicle. Gasbuddy va [69] • NASA’s Crawler-Transporter is used to move the Shuttle from storage to the launch pad. E seva power bill payment It uses diesel and has one of the highest fuel consumption rates on record, 150 US gallons per mile (350 l/km; 120 imp gal/mi). Gas finder rochester ny [70] Rail and bus are generally required to serve ‘off peak’ and rural services, which by their nature have lower loads than city bus routes and inter city train lines.

Electricity physics definition Moreover, due to their ‘walk on’ ticketing it is much harder to match daily demand and passenger numbers. Gas finder near me As a consequence, the overall load factor on UK railways is 35% or 90 people per train: [71] Conversely, Air services work on point-to-point networks between large population centres and are ‘pre-book’ in nature.

Electricity merit badge requirements Using yield management overall loads can be raised to around 70–90%. Gas you up However, recently intercity train operators have been using similar techniques, with loads reaching typically 71% overall for TGV services in France and a similar figure for the UK’s Virgin Trains services. Q card gas station [72] 1 gal -US (3.785 l, 0.833 gal -imp) of fuel can move a ton of cargo 857 km or 462 nmi by barge, or 337 km (209 mi) by rail, or 98 km (61 mi) by truck.

O gosh [80] Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency publishes annual statistics regarding the efficiency of the entire Canadian fleet. V gashi 2012 For researchers, these fuel consumption estimates are more realistic than the fuel consumption ratings of new vehicles, as they represent the real world driving conditions, including extreme weather and traffic.

Gas out game rules The annual report is called Energy Efficiency Trends Analysis. Gas weed There are dozens of tables illustrating trends in energy consumption expressed in energy per passenger km (passengers) or energy per tonne km (freight). Electricity 101 presentation [81] French environmental calculator [ edit ] The environmental calculator of the French environment and energy agency (ADEME) published in 2007 using data from 2005 [82] enables one to compare the different means of transportation as regards the CO 2 emissions (in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent) as well as the consumption of primary energy.

Gas stoichiometry formula In the case of an electric vehicle, the ADEME makes the assumption that 2.58 toe as primary energy are necessary for producing one toe of electricity as end energy in France (see Embodied energy#Embodied energy in the energy field). This computer tool devised by the ADEME shows the importance of public transportation from an environmental point of view. Electricity names superheroes It highlights the primary energy consumption as well as the CO 2 emissions due to transportation. Electricity labs for middle school However, nothing is said about the production of radioactive waste.

Mp electricity bill payment online indore Moreover, intermodal passenger transport is probably a key to sustainable transport, by allowing people to use less polluting means of transportation. Gas to liquid Footnotes [ edit ] Site: