Energy – unit – teachengineering electricity generation by source by state


Through nine lessons, students are introduced to a range of energy types — electrical, light, sound and thermal — as well as the renewable energy sources of wind, hydro (water) and solar power. Subjects range from understanding that the movement of energy at the electron level creates electricity that powers our world, to recognizing the Sun as our ultimate energy source. Through numerous hands-on activities, students explore a wide range of scientific topics related to the fundamentals of energy: kinetic and potential energy, light waves, reflection, refraction, convection, sound waves, volume, pitch, frequency, radiation, heat capacity, heat transfer, specific heat. These concepts are presented in the context of engineering applications pertinent to our everyday lives. Other aspects of energy are explored, including energy consumption and conservation, batteries, simple circuits, conduction and insulation, polarization, power grid and blackouts. As they delve into details about wind, water and solar power, students learn about thermometers, anemometers, wind and water turbines (windmills and waterwheels), and even direct solar heating and cooking. See the Unit Overview section for topics by lesson.

We use energy in all its forms almost every day. In uncountable ways, engineers build upon their scientific knowledge of energy and electricity concepts to provide us with electricity to meet our basic needs of food, shelter, safety, heating and cooling, as well as luxuries of comfort and entertainment. Engineers work with energy and electricity in all its forms, from tiny electrons to nation-spanning electrical grids to the design of everyday appliances.

As we use great amounts of electricity to run our lives, engineers are concerned about the way this energy is produced and its impact on our environment. We are facing many issues with conventional energy sources (fossil fuels, hydropower) that are leading engineers to develop innovative alternative energy sources (wind, solar, biomass, nuclear) and ways to conserve energy (material properties, appliance efficiencies). Yet, no one energy source works for all situations. So engineers design technologies to overcome the inherent disadvantages and obstacles that exist with every energy source.

Engineers apply their understanding of energy principles and behavior to solving real-world problems, resulting in everyday products (cell phones, computer software, electronic music, batteries, radio and television broadcasting, air-land-sea travel, household appliances, sunglasses, cameras, circuitry) as well as specialty technologies and applications (medical diagnostics and treatment, sonar, lasers, solar cells, power plants, transmission lines, the electrical energy grid, HVAC systems, microscopic technologies, weather prediction, space travel). When designing, engineers keep in mind the needs of the application, and optimize characteristics such as power output, ability to recharge, reliability, size, safety, heat generation, length of life cycle, abuse tolerance, cost and ability to be recycled.

Overview of topics by lesson: 1) an introduction to the types and sources of energy, 2) energy consumption and conservation, and renewable vs. nonrenewable energy sources, 3) light energy, including wavelengths, visible spectrum, reflection and refraction, 4) electrical energy, including charge, voltage, current, resistance, circuits, conduction and power plants, 5) sound energy, including sound waves, pitch, volume, frequency and transmission, 6) the nature of thermal energy, temperature and heat capacity, including the difference between conduction, convection and radiation, 7) the advantages and disadvantages of wind as a renewable energy source, 8) the pros and cons of hydropower, and its potential-to-kinetic energy transformation as seen in waterwheels and modern turbines, and 9) passive and active solar energy, including radiation and convection, thermal energy storage capacities and solar ovens.

Pre-Unit Test or Quiz: To conduct an overall pre/post content assessment of this curricular unit (nine lessons, with associated activities), administer the attached pre/post test/quiz to the class before beginning any discussion on energy, electricity and renewable energy. Then, after completion of the final lesson, administer the same (now post-unit) test/quiz to the same students and compare pre- to post- scores. In addition, these short exams are suitable to administer to a control group of students who have not completed the unit, to comparatively evaluate the impact of the curricular unit on learning. The attached test and quiz were developed by TE users. One is for fifth-grade students about energy and renewable energy ( All About Energy Pre/Post Test-Elementary) and another is for lower elementary-level students about energy, electricity, renewable energy and energy conservation ( Energy Pre/Post Quiz-Fifth-Grade).

Post-Unit Test or Quiz: If you administered a pre-unit test or quiz before beginning this curricular unit, conclude the overall pre/post assessment of the unit (nine lessons, with associated activities), by administering the same test or quiz again (now a post-unit test/quiz) to the class after concluding the final lesson and its activity. Compare pre- to post- scores to gauge the impact of the curricular unit on students’ learning.