Epr (nuclear reactor) – wikipedia e electricity bill payment

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The main design objectives of the third generation EPR design are increased safety while providing enhanced economic competitiveness through improvements to previous PWR designs scaled up to an electrical power output of around 1650 MW (net) [5] with thermal power 4500 MW. The reactor can use 5% enriched uranium oxide fuel, reprocessed uranium fuel or 100% mixed uranium plutonium oxide fuel. The EPR is the evolutionary descendant of the Framatome N4 and Siemens Power Generation Division Konvoi reactors. [6] [7] Siemens ceased its nuclear activities in 2011. [8]

In 2013 [update] EDF acknowledged the difficulties it was having building the EPR quadcopter gas engine design, with its head of production and engineering, Hervé Machenaud, saying EDF had lost its dominant international position in design and construction of nuclear power stations. Machenaud indicated EDF was considering designing two new lower powered reactors, one with output of 1,500 MWe and the other 1,000 MWe. Machenaud stated there would be a period of reflection on the best way to improve the EPR design to lower its price and incorporate post-Fukushima safety improvements. [13]

In September 2015 EDF’s chief executive Jean-Bernard Lévy stated that the design of a New Model EPR was being worked on, which will be easier to build, to be ready for orders from about 2020, [4] describing it in 2016 as a reactor offering the same characteristics as today’s EPR but it will be cheaper to build with optimised construction times and costs. [14]

In 2016 EDF planned to build two New Model EPR reactors in France by 2030 to prepare for renewing its fleet of older reactors. [15] However following financial difficulties at Areva, and its merger with EDF, French Ecology Minister Nicolas Hulot said in January 2018 for now [building a New Model EPR] is neither a priority or a plan. Right now the priority is to develop renewable energy and to reduce the share of nuclear. [16] The industry-government plan for 2019-2022 included work on a new version of the EPR. [17] Olkiluoto 3 (Finland) [ edit ]

The construction of the Olkiluoto 3 [19] power station in Finland commenced in August 2005. The station will have an electrical power output of 1600 MWe (net). [5] The construction was a joint effort of French Areva and German Siemens AG through their common subsidiary Areva NP, for Finnish operator TVO. Siemens ceased nuclear activities in 2011. Initial cost estimates were about €3.7 billion, [20] but the project has gas in babies that breastfeed since seen several severe cost increments and delays, with latest cost estimates (from 2012) of more than €8 billion. [21] The station was initially scheduled to go online in 2009, [22] but operations are now expected to start in 2020. [18]

In May 2006, construction delays of about one year were announced, following quality control problems across the construction. In part the delays were due to the lack of oversight of subcontractors inexperienced in nuclear construction. [23] [24] The delays led to disappointing financial results grade 6 electricity unit for the Areva NP. It blamed delays on the Finnish approach to approving technical documentation and designs. [25] [26]

At the end of June 2007, it was reported that Säteilyturvakeskus (STUK), the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, had found a number of safety-related design and manufacturing ‘deficiencies’. [29] In August 2007, a further construction delay of up to a year was reported associated with construction problems in reinforcing the reactor building to withstand an aeroplane crash, and the timely supply of adequate documentation to the Finnish authorities. [30] [31] [32]

As of May 2009 [update], the station was at least three and a half years behind schedule and more than 50 percent over-budget. Areva and the utility involved are in bitter dispute over who will bear the cost overruns and there is a real risk now that the utility will default. [38] In August 2009, Areva announced €550 million additional provisions for the build, taking station costs to €5.3 billion, and wiped out interim operating profits for the first half-year of 2009. [39]

In June 2010, Areva announced €400 million of further provisions, taking the cost overrun to €2.7 billion. The timescale slipped to the end of 2012 from June 2012, [42] [43] Areva’s Overruns at Finnish Nuclear Station Approach Initial Cost with operation set to start in 2013. [44] In December 2011, TVO announced a further delay to August 2014. [45]

In September 2014 Areva announced that operations would start in 2018. [48] In October 2017 the date was pushed back to the beginning of 2019, [49] and in June 2018 to September 2019 due to testing delays. [50] In November 2018 a further delay of four months was announced: regular electricity generation is due to start in January 2020. [18] Flamanville 3 (France) [ edit ]

In April 2008 the French nuclear safety agency ( Autorité de sûreté nucléaire, ASN) reported that a quarter of the welds inspected in the secondary containment steel liner are not in accordance with norms, and that cracks have been found in the concrete base. EDF stated that static electricity human body progress was being made on these issues raised very early in construction; [55] however, on 21 May ASN ordered a suspension of concrete pouring on the site. [56] A month later concreting work resumed after ASN accepted EDF’s corrective action plan which included external oversight checks. [57]

In February 2017 the Financial Times stated the project was six years late and €7.2 billion over budget [69] while renewed delays in the construction of the EPR-reactors at Taishan Nuclear Power Plant prompted EDF to state that Flamanville 3 remains on schedule to start operations by the end of 2018, assuming it receives regulator approval. [70] In June 2017 the French regulator issued a provisional ruling that Flamanville 3 is safe to start. [71]

The EPR underwent Generic Design Assessment by the Office for Nuclear Regulation, along with the Westinghouse AP1000. [85] Interim Design Acceptance Confirmations were postponed until lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster had been taken into account 4 gases in the atmosphere besides oxygen and nitrogen. [86] EDF bought British Energy in 2009. EDF planned to build 4 new EPRs, [87] subject to electricity pricing agreement with the government. [88] [89] Areva has signed a strategic partnership with Rolls-Royce to support the build of EPRs. [90] On 19 March 2013 planning consent for Hinkley Point C nuclear power station was given, [91] but difficult negotiations with the UK government about electricity pricing, and project financing with private investors, still needed to be concluded. [92]

On 21 October 2013, EDF Energy announced that an agreement had been reached regarding the nuclear stations to be built on the site of Hinkley Point C. EDF Group and the UK Government agreed on the key commercial terms of the investment contract. The final investment decision was conditional on completion of the remaining key steps, including the agreement of the European Commission.

On 28 July 2016, after the resignation of a board member, the EDF board approved the project. [97] However Greg Clark, the new Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy in the new government of Theresa May, then announced that the government would not sign the contract over the next few days as expected, but delay the contract to autumn to consider carefully all the component parts of this project. [98] Final government approval was given in September 2016. [3]

In July 2017, following an internal review, EDF announced revised estimates for the scheme, which included at least £1.5 billion of additional costs and up to 15 months of additional programme, leading to updated total cost estimates of £19.6-20.3 billion (€22-22.8 billion). [99] [100] [101] Possible future power stations [ edit ] India [ edit ]

The US-EPR, the version of the EPR submitted to the U.S. regulator, [124] is one of the gas water heater reviews 2012 competitors for the next generation of nuclear stations in the United States, along with the AP1000 and the ESBWR. In February 2015 Areva asked to suspend the Design Certification Application Review process at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). [124] It had been under review there with expectation to submit an application for final design approval and standard design certification since 14 December 2007. [125] UniStar, Amarillo Power, PPL Corp and AmerenUE announced plans to file a Combined Construction and Operating Licence application in 2008 for the US-EPR at its Callaway station. UniStar filed a partial application in July 2007 for a proposed third unit at the Calvert Cliffs 3 gases Nuclear Power Plant in Maryland. However, both proposals were subsequently cancelled.

In April 2009, Missouri legislators baulked at preconstruction rate increases, prompting AmerenUE to suspend plans for its reactor. [126] [127] In July 2010, Constellation Energy Group cut spending on UniStar for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station because of uncertainties for a loan guarantee from the U.S. Department of Energy, [128] [129] and subsequently pulled out of the project. [130] In October 2008, Areva announced that it will partner with US defence firm Northrop Grumman to establish a US$380 million facility to construct modules and assemblies for the EPR and US-EPR reactors at Northrop Grumman’s Newport News Shipyard in Virginia. [131] [132]