Evaluating active roles of community health workers in accelerating universal access to health services for malaria in palawan, the philippines _ tropical medicine and health _ full text

Malaria is one of the most important parasitic infections in humans. Electricity and magnetism review game In 2013, it accounted for approximately 584,000 deaths (range 367,000–755,000) worldwide [ 1]. Electricity lyrics Although malaria was once prevalent throughout much of the inhabited world, it has been eliminated in roughly half of the world’s countries and now is mostly restricted to rural tropical regions [ 2]. Gastroenteritis From 2000 to 2013, the number of malaria infections dropped by 26 % from 173 million to 128 million, while the worldwide mortality rate decreased by 47 % [ 1]. 4 main gases in the atmosphere This decrease occurred as a result of substantial increases in donor funding, improved control, and increased enthusiasm for malaria elimination [ 3, 4].

Improving the availability of effective health services has been an essential strategy for malaria elimination in all of the endemic regions [ 1]. Gas x strips side effects At present, malaria mostly remains in remote and rural regions where essential preventive measures are delivered to the populations that need them the most by poor health systems with insufficient human resources [ 5, 6]. Gas news australia Thus, the targeting of residents in these areas, including socially vulnerable groups such as ethnic minorities and migrants, is a key to malaria control [ 7, 8].

To overcome these challenges in many malaria-endemic regions, the validity and usefulness of strategies that utilize community health workers (CHWs) has been proposed [ 9, 10]. Gas and water mix According to the World Health Organization (WHO), CHWs should meet the following criteria: be members of the communities where they work; be selected by the communities; be answerable to the communities for their activities; be supported by health systems, but not necessarily a part of their organization; and have shorter training than professional workers [ 11]. Electricity storage association In rural areas, where there is a recognized paucity of human capacity and health systems, the utilization of CHWs is a potentially inexpensive, effective, and sustainable approach for bringing malaria diagnosis and treatment closer to households [ 11].

Although CHWs, such as barangay health workers (BHWs) or government-trained health volunteers, have been operating in rural villages in the Philippines since 1981, their involvement in malaria control has not been satisfactory [ 12]. Gas smoker ribs This has largely been due to inadequate training, insufficient logistical support, poorly sustained motivational schemes, and a lack of community support.

With this background, a community-based malaria control program was established in Palawan, one of the most malaria-endemic provinces in the Philippines, in 1999 [ 13– 16]. Electricity in salt water experiment The program, which was called Kilusan Ligtas Malaria (KLM) (Tagalog: Movement Against Malaria), involved training 344 CHWs as malaria microscopists (one microscopist per malaria-endemic village). Gas prices going up The microscopists diagnose malaria in febrile patients via microscopy and prescribe first-line anti-malarial drugs to malaria-infected patients. Electricity 101 pdf Microscopists also implement community awareness-raising activities that are aimed at preventing the transmission of malaria among their patients and their patients’ families. Gas news in hindi Since this program started, diagnostic techniques that allow for the early diagnosis of malaria have been extended to the entire province. La t gastrobar opiniones This community-based malaria control program was partly maintained with the aid of the Japan International Cooperation Agency and the ongoing Global Fund Project through the Pilipinas Shell Foundation, Inc.

To accelerate the efforts to eliminate malaria in Palawan, this community-based malaria control program must be evaluated. 6 gas laws The present study also aimed to find out the value of the capacity for microscopy and active roles of CHWs by reviewing the epidemiological data in Palawan and the related literature. Electricity outage The findings may also be used to enhance the performance of CHWs in other settings. Electricity pick up lines Methods

Malaria has existed in the Philippines for centuries, and several malaria control strategies have been implemented [ 18– 20]. Electricity estimated bills When the Spanish arrived and started to occupy the Philippines in the 16th century, the country was largely covered with extensive forests, which the local people avoided due to the risk of infection [ 18]. Gas and bloating after miscarriage Forest exploitation using forced local labor contributed to several malaria epidemics and the persistence of malaria within the Philippines. Gas unlimited sugar land tx After the Spanish-American War in 1898, the United States occupied the Philippines and programs were implemented to minimize the spread of several diseases including malaria, cholera, smallpox, dysentery, and tuberculosis. Electricity and magnetism quiz questions In 1931, there were approximately 20,000 deaths due to malaria per year and the strategy for malaria control was to examine blood smears by microscope, to treat cases with quinine alone or with plasmochin, and to use screens and bed nets [ 19]. K electric jobs The start of World War II saw an increase in malaria morbidity and mortality throughout the Philippines.

After the end of World War II, malaria-vector control was achieved by dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) spraying in the province of Mindanao, an island in the southeast of the Philippines [ 18, 20]. E payment electricity bill mp DDT spraying proved effective, and the spraying program was expanded to cover the rest of the Philippines in 1955; thereafter, there was a dramatic decrease in malaria morbidity. Gas arkansas However, spraying alone was by no means a perfect tool for eliminating malaria on the islands. 1940 gas station photos Evidence-based diagnoses and treatment by microscopists

Angluben et al. Gas jewelry introduced KLM as a strategy with a focus on social mobilization in the implementation of malaria prevention and control [ 21]. Electricity year 6 Since the launch of KLM, microscopists had enhanced the feasibility of early diagnosis and treatment throughout the province. Electricity dance moms The achievements of KLM were reflected in the total number of malaria smears that were performed, the increase in microscopic confirmations of malaria, and the decline in clinical diagnoses between 2000 and 2006.

A novel malaria elimination strategy which aims to strengthen community awareness-raising activities by microscopists, with a focus on children under 5 years of age in the southern region of the province, indigenous people, and people who have to stay in the forest, is required. Shell gas credit card 5 The strategy should follow a simple, effective, and affordable approach to promote the implementation of effective malaria preventive measures and to encourage residents to seek appropriate treatment. Grade 9 electricity test Consequently, this new strategy could accelerate the efforts to eliminate malaria in the province of Palawan, which will be adopted in the WHO’s Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016–2030 [ 28], with an aim of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 [ 29].

Improvements to diagnosis and treatment alone might not be sufficient to combat malaria in the southern region of the province of Palawan. Quadcopter gas motor Other strategies such as health promotion in schools and mother and infant medical checkups should be considered. Electricity 101 video Consideration is also needed for the geographic characteristics of the southern region which are responsible for the high rate of malaria.

As is the case in many developing nations, Palawan is facing a changing pattern of diseases. 3 gases Morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases are decreasing, while the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases or cancer is increasing. Electricity generation by source by country The time has come to consider whether microscopists should be given additional tasks or whether the tasks that they perform should be changed. Static electricity in the body effects Since Palawan has limited health facilities and human resources, task-shifting strategies that extend the mission of trained microscopists to fight these diseases should be considered. Electricity tower vector Conclusion

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