Every olympics face predictions of doom preceding the games, but the health concerns over rio feel different _ national post

“This is a triple-whammy,” says Matthew Taylor, an associate professor at the American University’s School of International Service in Washington, D.C. M gastrocnemius “Put together, those three things are unprecedented, certainly in the last 30 years of democracy.”

On top of the economic and political turmoil, Brazil is facing a public health crisis because of the spread of the Zika virus, a sickness that can cause microcephaly, involving a shrunken skull and brain anomalies, in babies born to infected mothers. Gas block dimple jig The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, or sexually from men to women or from men to other men. Electricity in costa rica Almost 100,000 cases have been reported in Brazil.

On Friday, 150 prominent physicians, bioethicists and scientists from around the globe published a letter urging World Health Organization Director-General Margaret Chan to exert pressure on Olympic authorities to either move the Olympics from Rio or delay them because of the Zika threat.

Amir Attaran, a professor of public health and law at the University of Ottawa and one of the four authors of the letter, also made the case in a widely circulated essay this month in the Harvard Public Health Review.

Exposing visitors from around the world to the virus will inevitably accelerate its global spread, he says, infecting especially poor populations in the developing world where insufficient sanitation, densely populated cities and the presence of the same type of mosquitoes make them vulnerable.

Laurie Garrett, senior fellow for global health at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York, disagrees with Attaran only in that she thinks his focus is too narrow.

The threat from Zika, Garrett believes, is but one danger that could derail the Olympics. Gasco abu dhabi contact She isn’t convinced the Brazilian government can handle the logistical and transportation challenges posed by welcoming about 500,000 visitors and athletes. Inert gas definition chemistry She has concerns about public safety. Gas in babies home remedies And she thinks Zika is not even the most serious health with which Brazil must grapple.

“Brazil is facing a far larger dengue fever epidemic, a massive chikungunya epidemic. Electricity magnetism It has been struggling with all kinds of vector-borne diseases,” she says, referring to two viruses that are transmitted by the same species of mosquito that carries Zika.

“So from the point of view of, say, a team physician, I’m worried about the amalgam, the totality of this enormous burden of vector-borne diseases and whether I can provide to my athletes, particularly those who will be in outdoor venues, sufficient protection to ensure that they’re not going to get bit by a mosquito that may given them dengue, may give them chikungunya, may give them Zika.”

Garrett says there are several mosquito-control and other protective measures authorities in Brazil could carry out to sufficiently reduce these risks. Gas bijoux discount code She simply doesn’t have faith in their ability to do so.

“If I were deciding based on what I know right now, as opposed to two months from now, I would say, wow, better have a Plan B for the Olympics — somewhere else.”

For Brian McCloskey, who advises the International Olympic Committee’s medical director, talk of postponing or moving the games is overblown and alarmist.

McCloskey, director of Global Health for Public Health England, worked on public health services for the 2012 Olympics in London. Electricity production by state He says he and his colleagues then prepared for outbreaks similar to the H1N1 flu or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which caused hundreds of deaths around the world in 2003.

“Those would have been serious challenges to us, but I don’t think either of those would have resulted in the games being canceled, because you can put in place mitigation effects to try to manage the consequences,” he says.

Brazilian authorities, he says, are doing what they must. Electricity distribution companies Hundreds of thousands of soldiers have hit the streets searching for standing water where mosquitoes might breed and telling residents how to protect themselves. Gas quality comparison Venue sites have been thoroughly doused with insecticide.

Besides, McCloskey says, the risk of exporting the disease to new locales is low. La gasolina lyrics translation Most visitors to the games will come from Brazil and elsewhere in South America where Zika is already present.

He notes Brazil hosted the soccer World Cup in 2014, and has already held its annual Carnival this year — both events that attracted visitors from all over the world and didn’t result in a notable spread of Zika. 9gag instagram videos “It seems to me that the residual risk of accelerating Zika is not that substantial, and history suggests that it doesn’t really happen,” he says.

Citing another mass gathering, McCloskey points out that dengue fever is present in Saudi Arabia, which receives millions of hajj pilgrims every year who return to their homes without triggering a public health crisis. Gastric sleeve scars “So you just have to keep the risk in context,” he says.

Joe Foweraker, an emeritus fellow the University of Oxford’s St. Electricity research centre Antony’s College, says Brazil’s response to the Zika outbreak has been “as comprehensive as a government under siege can make it.”

He says Rio’s municipal government runs relatively well, which may protect the games from any disorder in the federal government. Gas oil ratio formula But he notes that Zika’s presence in Rio and elsewhere in Brazil has been made worse by the poor living conditions for millions of urban favela (slum) residents successive local and national administrations have been unable to improve much.

“If you’ve got very poor areas that have no sanitation, no running water, and people have to travel a distance to lug water to their homes, then of course you’re going to get a lot of standing water around the home, because they keep it there. Gas station car wash And that is a perfect breeding ground for Zika, dengue fever and all those other things,” he says.

This persistent poverty, perhaps more than the Zika outbreak itself, reflects some of the disappointments in Brazil that the Olympics will shine a spotlight on.

“These games were supposed to be a showcase for the Brazil that basically existed eight years ago, which was very successful, growing rapidly, with an expanding middle class and reduced rates of poverty,” says Harold Trinkunas, director of the Latin America Initiative at the Brookings Institution’s Foreign Policy Program in Washington, D.C.

Instead, the country is struggling to convince prospective visitors it is a safe place. Basic electricity quizlet For most, it probably is (although the risks to pregnant women are particularly worrisome). Arkansas gas association And it is difficult to imagine those who do make the trip to Rio won’t enjoy themselves. Electricity notes for class 10 But this isn’t shaping up to be the coming-out party for the country Brazilians might have hoped for when they bid on the games almost a decade ago.