Exploding head syndrome – wikipedia gas symptoms

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Exploding head syndrome is classified as a parasomnia and a sleep-related dissociative disorder by the 2005 International Classification of Sleep Disorders and is an unusual type of auditory hallucination in that it occurs in people who are not fully awake. [7] Symptoms [ edit ]

Individuals with exploding head syndrome hear or experience loud imagined noises as they are falling asleep or waking up, have a strong, often frightened emotional reaction to the sound, and do not report significant pain; around 10% of people also experience visual disturbances like perceiving visual static, lightning, or flashes of light. Some people may also experience heat, strange feelings in their torso, or a feeling of electrical tinglings that ascends to the head before the auditory hallucinations occur. [2] With the heightened arousal, people experience distress, confusion, myoclonic jerks, tachycardia, sweating, and the sensation that feels as if they have stopped breathing and have to make a deliberate effort to breathe again. [3] [8] [9] [10]

The pattern of the auditory hallucinations is variable. Some people report having a total of two or four attacks followed by a prolonged or total remission, having attacks over the course of a few weeks or months before the attacks spontaneously disappear, or the attacks may even recur irregularly every few days, weeks, or months for much of a lifetime. [2]

Some individuals mistakenly believe that EHS episodes are not natural events, but are the effects of directed energy weapons which create an auditory effect. [11] Thus, EHS has been worked into conspiracy theories, but there is no scientific evidence that EHS has non-natural origins. Causes [ edit ]

The cause of EHS is unknown, [5] but a number of hypotheses have been put forth (summarized in [2]). The most prevalent theory on the cause of EHS is dysfunction of the reticular formation in the brainstem responsible for transition between waking and sleeping. [2]

As of 2018, no clinical trials had been conducted to determine what treatments are safe and effective; a few case reports had been published describing treatment of small numbers of people (two to twelve per report) with clomipramine, flunarizine, nifedipine, topiramate, carbamazepine, methylphenidate. [2] Studies suggest that education and reassurance can reduce the frequency of EHS episodes. [3] There is some evidence that individuals with EHS rarely report episodes to medical professionals. [10] Epidemiology [ edit ]

There have not been sufficient studies conducted to make conclusive statements about prevalence nor who tends to suffer EHS. [2] One study found that 13.5% of a sample of undergrads reported at least one episode over the course of their lives, with higher rates in those also suffering from sleep paralysis. [6] History [ edit ]

Case reports of EHS have been published since at least 1876, which Silas Weir Mitchell described as "sensory discharges" in a patient. [6] However, it has been suggested that the earliest written account of EHS was described in the biography of the French philosopher René Descartes in 1691. [12] The phrase "snapping of the brain" was coined in 1920 by the British physician and psychiatrist Robert Armstrong-Jones. [6] A detailed description of the syndrome and the name "exploding head syndrome" was given by British neurologist John M. S. Pearce in 1989. [13] More recently, Peter Goadsby and Brian Sharpless have proposed renaming EHS "episodic cranial sensory shock" [1] as it describes the symptoms more accurately (including the non-auditory elements) and better attributes to Mitchell. References [ edit ]