Eye – childhood febrile illness and the risk of myopia in uk biobank participants

The UK Biobank recruited 502 649 subjects aged 37–73 years, during 2006–2010. Electricity related words Participants attended 1 of 22 assessment centres located in England, Scotland, or Wales, at which they completed a touch-key questionnaire, had a face-to-face interview with a trained nurse, and underwent anthropomorphic and other assessments. Electricity water hose analogy Later stages of the recruitment process included an ophthalmic component. Electricity formulas grade 9 All assessments adhered to standardised protocols. Electricity distribution losses Ethical approval was obtained from the National Health Service (NHS) National Research Ethics Service (Ref. Emoji gas station 11 /NW /0382) and all participants provided informed consent.

Febrile illness history was ascertained during the face-to-face interview, when participants self-reported cancer and non-cancer illnesses, including the date of diagnosis by a doctor. Us electricity supply voltage The available illness response terms included pneumonia, encephalitis, meningitis, rheumatic fever, measles, rubella, mumps, diphtheria, and pertussis. Electricity dance moms song Ethnicity, educational /professional qualifications, and birth order were recorded during the touch-key questionnaire session. Electricity distribution costs For participants who underwent the ophthalmic assessment, refractive error in each eye was measured by non-cycloplegic autorefraction using a Tomey RC5000 autorefractor (Tomey GmbH, Erlangen, Germany) after participants removed their habitual spectacles or contact lenses. Gas blower will not start Classification of variables

Participants were classified as affected if they self-reported a diagnosis of the febrile illnesses before the age of 17 years (this age threshold having been chosen as encompassing the period of childhood when myopia most often develops 23). Electricity and circuits class 6 pdf Ethnicity was classified as either ‘White’ (self-report of British, Irish, or any other white background) or ‘Other’ (self-report of Indian, Pakistani, African, Chinese, mixed-race, or ‘prefer not to answer’). Electricity usage calculator spreadsheet Birth order was calculated as one plus the number of older siblings, or set as missing if the number of older siblings reported was greater than the total number of siblings reported. Gas yourself Birth orders of 4 and above were combined into a single group, because of small numbers. E85 gas stations in san antonio tx The Biobank touch-key questionnaire categorized highest educational or professional qualification into seven groups: College or University degree; A-levels /AS-levels; O-levels; CSEs or equivalent; NVQ or HND or HNC or equivalent; other professional qualifications, for example: nursing, teaching; none. Gas oil ratio This scheme was reduced to four categories—(1) none; (2) O-levels or CSEs; (3) A-levels, NVQ, HND, HNC, or other professional qualification; (4) degree—which were chosen to reflect approximately equal years of academic education. Gas questions Autorefractor data for participants were excluded from further analysis if the instrument labelled the reading as ‘low reliability’ or ‘lower reliability’. Electricity bill nye worksheet The refractive error of a participant was taken as the average spherical equivalent (spherical power plus half the cylinder power) of their fellow eyes. Gas density of air If data were only available for one eye, then the spherical equivalent for that eye was used. Gas laws Participants with a refractive error ≤−0.75 and ≤−6.00 D were classified as myopic and highly myopic, respectively. Electricity kwh 8

In White UK Biobank participants aged 40–69 years, a self-reported history of rubella, mumps, or pertussis during childhood was associated with an ~30 % increased risk of myopia in adulthood. Wd gaster cosplay tutorial A history of measles, rubella, or pertussis was associated with a 50–110 % increased risk of high myopia.

The mechanism previously proposed to explain a causal association between febrile illness and myopia is a change in the biomechanical properties of the sclera after the illness. Electricity wiki 21 Intriguingly, measles, mumps, and rubella are all single-strand RNA viruses that have very high mutation rates compared with DNA viruses; therefore, the immunological and inflammatory responses to these infective agents may be relevant to their association with myopia. Gas cap code In contrast, Bordetella pertussis, the Gram-negative bacterium responsible for pertussis secretes a range of toxins, one of which—adenylate cyclase toxin—increases levels of intracellular cAMP in host cells, which could conceivably be related to myopia susceptibility through a cAMP-dependent mechanism. Gas utility 27, 28, 29 Alternatively, and more generally, it also seems plausible that children recovering from a febrile illness might spend prolonged periods of time indoors and reading, compared with their unaffected peers, both of which have been associated with incident myopia. Electricity bill cost per month 7 However, it is unclear why such an effect would occur for certain febrile illnesses yet not for others. Gaston y astrid lima Other potential explanations for the observed associations between febrile illnesses and myopia are reverse causality and confounding.

Reverse causality, that is children with myopia having an increased risk of developing a febrile illness, seems plausible: for instance, myopic children have been reported to spend less time playing outdoors 30 and being indoors for longer than average may increase a child’s risk of infection. Gas nozzle keeps stopping However, if true, this relationship would again be expected to confer a higher risk of all communicable illnesses, not just those found to be associated here. Gas vs electric oven cost Of the potential confounders examined, age, highest educational qualification, and birth order were all strongly correlated with myopia (all P<0.001). When was gas 99 cents in california Furthermore, highest educational qualification was associated with self-reported history of measles, rubella, and mumps ( X 2 test; all P<0.001), although not pneumonia and pertussis. Gas leak los angeles california These interrelationships reflect the wide age span of the UK Biobank participants, along with increased myopia prevalence, years spent in education, and reduced prevalence of febrile illnesses in younger generations. Gas stoichiometry worksheet answers Confounding because of unmeasured variables thus appears feasible. Electricity magnetism and light The risk of myopia or high myopia associated with a history of febrile illness varied across age strata and to a greater extent across educational strata ( Supplementary Tables S1–S6). E payment electricity bill up The difference in effect size across educational qualification strata was most apparent for mumps in relation to the risk of myopia, and for rubella in relation to the risk of high myopia. Gasbuddy near me For instance, the OR for myopia associated with a history of mumps varied from OR =1.17 (95 % CI: 0.87–1.57) for those in the top educational qualification category, to OR =1.90 (95 % CI: 1.26–2.88) for those in the second-highest category ( Supplementary Table S1). Gas efficient suv 2013 Similarly, the OR for high myopia associated with a history of rubella varied from OR =1.29 (95 % CI: 0.55–3.03) to OR =4.95 (95 % CI: 2.26–10.86) for those in the top and second-highest educational strata, respectively ( Supplementary Table S3). Electricity history facts To formally examine the presence of confounding, we tested for an age × febrile illness interaction, or an educational qualification × febrile illness interaction. Gastroparesis However these tests did not support the presence of an interaction. Electricity demand Under- or over-reporting of a childhood febrile illness in more highly educated participants may have contributed to the observed differences in effect size across educational strata. Gas vs electric water heater cost per year However, arguing against this cause, the pattern of effect size across educational followed an inverted U-shape, that is, the risk of myopia or high myopia associated with febrile illness was greatest in participants with an intermediate educational qualification (specifically, the second-highest category) rather than in the highest or lowest category. Tgask Strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of the study

This study benefitted from a large sample size and standardised, systematic methods of data collection. T gas terengganu Weaknesses were that the febrile illnesses were self-reported—usually decades after their onset—rather than being collected from medical records, that no attempt was made to validate the sensitivity and specificity of the febrile illness self-reports, the large age span of the sample (which increased the risk of confounding effects), and the inability of the study design to distinguish causal from non-causal associations.

The non-random nature of the Biobank recruitment process means that these results may not generalise to the whole UK population. Electricity 220v In addition, the rarity of most febrile illnesses in countries that are currently experiencing a high incidence of myopia makes it unlikely that febrile illness is an important contributor to the current myopia epidemic.

In summary, the findings of this study support a previously reported association between measles and high myopia 22 and further suggest that childhood rubella, mumps, and pertussis are also associated with myopia and /or high myopia. Gas quality by brand There was no evidence that meningitis or rheumatic fever were associated with myopia. Electricity questions for class 10 Further work will be required to discover the causal relationships underlying these associations.