Fact check ilhan omar says it’s a ‘myth’ that trans women have a ‘direct competitive advantage’ in powerlifting the stream electricity usage calculator south africa


“I urge you to reconsider this discriminatory, unscientific policy and follow the example of the International Olympic gas blower will not start Committee. The myth that trans women have a ‘direct competitive advantage’ is not supported by medical science, and it continues to stoke fear and violence against one of the most at-risk committees in the world,” Omar said.

“Male-to-female transgenders are not allowed to compete as females in our static strength sports as it is a direct competitive advantage,” a USA Powerlifting official told Cooper via email, Outsports reported. “Transgender male to female individuals having gone through male puberty confer an unfair competitive advantage over non-transgender females due to increased bone density and muscle mass from pubertal exposure to testosterone.”

Men have much higher average levels of testosterone, a hormone that helps build muscle mass and strength, than women. One 2010 study of world records found that since 1983, men in the Olympics performed about 10 percent better than women, with exact percentages varying from sport to sport. The gender gap in weightlifting world records was 36.8 percent, it found.

Because of this biological difference, some sports leagues allow trans women to compete if they meet certain hormonal levels, among other criteria. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) allows trans women in women’s sporting events if they have demonstrated levels of testosterone below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months, remain below those levels for competition and don’t change their gender identity for at least four years.

The review that Omar cited only looked at one experimental study that helps establish whether transgender electricity vs gas heating costs individuals taking hormones can fairly compete in sports: a 2004 study that found that male-to-female transgender individuals’ levels of testosterone had decreased to biological women’s levels after one year of hormone therapy, using female-to-male (F-M) pre-hormone samples for comparison.

“The physiological attributes of males that makes them naturally stronger including anatomical and biological features such as size, muscle mass, lung capacity, and heart size would be an advantage,” Alison Heather, a physiology professor at the University of Otago in New Zealand, told a New Zealand website. “Whether this normalizing of hormone levels (and at 10 NMOL/L it is debatable whether they are normalized enough) removes the vast majority of the advantage of having been male is still an unanswered question.”

USA Powerlifting raised the point that trans women have a higher bone density than biological women. Several studies have found that bone mineral density was preserved or increased in trans women after hormone therapy. Some other studies, though, said that low bone mass is not uncommon in trans women, that trans women had lower bone density than a group of control men and that a substantial number of trans women suffered from osteoporosis after hormone therapy.

One study on distance running from Joanna Harper, a medical physicist at Providence Portland Medical Center in Oregon, examined race times for eight trans women before and after hormonal electricity and magnetism review game transition. All runners except one, who started training more after transitioning to female, ran much slower in female races than in male races, but part of that could be due to age.

After being statistically adjusted to account for age and gender differences, the results make it “possible to state that transgender women run distance races at approximately the same level, for their respective gender, both before and after gender transition,” the study said. In other words, while the runners had slower times in the female races, they were about the same performance-wise compared to women as they were in male races compared to men.

“You really want to look at it carefully, you want to be sport-specific,” Harper cautioned. “Weightlifting is divided by weight categories. Transgender women are certainly not taller or bigger than women in their weight category — they’re the same size. Are transgender women stronger pound for pound? … We don’t know for sure. It’s possible, it’s possible it’s not.”

Trans women would be overrepresented in sports if they were substantially y gasset advantaged, Harper argued. The percentage of left-handed Major League Baseball players, for example, is larger than the percentage of left-handed people in the general population — an indirect measure of their advantage in the sport. By contrast, there were nearly 219,000 women who participated in NCAA sports in 2017-2018, but Harper could only think of three trans women competing at that level, despite expecting the number to be around 1,000 statistically. Sociological factors, though, also affect trans participation in sports.

Issues gas tax in washington state may arise when trans women compete in a top-to-unlimited powerlifting bodyweight class. Cooper won the USPA competition in Minnesota while competing in the women’s top bodyweight class, 90.1 kilograms and up. Cooper, weighing 127.3 kilograms, would also be in the top women’s bodyweight class for USA Powerlifting, 84 kilograms and up, if allowed to compete.

Cooper only started competing in powerlifting about a year ago, according to one interview, but had been weightlifting for a while before that. Fair Play For Women, a U.K.-based group that opposes policies that allow trans individuals to participate in women’s sports, suggested in a tweet that Cooper’s quick success in the sport shows unfairness.

Harper believes that Cooper isn’t a real threat to elite women’s powerlifting. “If you look at her particular weight category there is at least one American woman who is lifting twice as much as JayCee is,” Harper said. “So while JayCee won some very low-level competition, she’s no threat to be the best in the country by any stretch of the imagination.”

“If an elite athlete takes performance-enhancing drugs to put on muscle bulk, their muscle may retain a memory of this prior muscle growth. If the athlete is caught and given a ban — it may be the case that short bans are not adequate, as they may continue to be at an advantage over their competitors because they have taken drugs earlier in life, despite not taking drugs anymore,” Robert Seaborne, co-author of one of the studies and then-Ph.D. student at Keele University, said in a statement last year.

The 2016 article published by the American College of Sports Medicine said that more was electricity invented during the industrial revolution research is needed on muscle memory and whether hormone therapy has an effect on the number of myonuclei, which dictates training response, in trans women. “If not, some of the biological advantage of a male biology will remain, irrespective of ‘normalizing’ the levels of circulating hormones,” it said.

The International Association of Athletics Federations in 2018 issued new caps of 5 nmol/L on testosterone levels for women competing in track races from 400m up to the mile. The new rules mean that Olympic 800m champion Caster Semenya of South Africa, widely thought to be intersex (born with both male and female biological features), may have to take medication that reduces testosterone levels, or otherwise be deemed ineligible. The rule is being challenged and not yet in effect.

Fair Play For Women advocates for converting male categories to “open electricity song 2015” categories where any athlete can compete regardless of sex, gender identity or hormone levels. “Although some unfairness still inevitably remains in this solution, it is significantly less than the unfairness under the current rules and the impact on a very large and already disadvantaged group within sports; females,” its website says.