Fog machine – wikipedia gas prices going up in nj


Dry Ice (solid carbon dioxide) effects are produced by heating water to or near boiling in a suitable container (for example: a 55-gallon drum with water heater coils in it), and then dropping in one or more pieces of dry ice. Because at standard temperature and pressure carbon dioxide is a gas, the carbon dioxide sublimates and instantly produces a gas, condensing water vapor and creating a thick white fog. A fan placed at the top of the container directs the fog where it is needed.

Liquid nitrogen (N 2) is used to create low lying g gas lol fog effects in a manner similar to dry ice. A machine heats water to at or near the boiling point, creating steam and increasing the humidity in a closed container. When liquid nitrogen is pumped into the container, the moisture rapidly condenses, creating a thick white fog. A fan placed electricity physics test at the output of the container directs the fog where it is needed, creating a rolling fog that lies low to the ground.

Liquid air is an alternative to using liquid nitrogen in generating low lying fog effects. Liquid air is composed of N 2 and O 2 mixed in a ratio of 79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen stored as a liquid in insulated cylinders. This ratio of nitrogen to oxygen is the same as that of atmospheric air, and indeed liquid air may be fabricated by simply liquefying atmospheric air. Liquid air can be used as a direct replacement for liquid nitrogen in chilled-fog effects and is intended to be used in the same manner in the same equipment. Its key advantage over liquid nitrogen is that it presents no asphyxiation hazard, since it contains oxygen. A disadvantage is that it supports combustion, whereas liquid nitrogen inhibits combustion.

Fog readily assists in creating a specific mood or feeling for a theatrical moment, and is often used in plays, such as Dracula, A Christmas Carol and Macbeth. Fog machines are also frequently used in Halloween displays such as haunted houses or forests. Because of greater availability and reductions in prices between 2003 and 2005, fog machines have become widely used for domestic Halloween presentations.

Several companies in Europe and Canada have developed rapid deployment fog machines for use as intrusion and hold-up security systems, intended to disorient an intruder by filling a room gas leak with fog when triggered by a panic button or other security device. These Security Smoke devices can produce between 300 and 1,000 cubic meters of smoke in 30 seconds and have been utilized in a wide variety of industries, including buildings requiring a high level of security, such as banks and jewelers, but also warehouses, offices, retail premises and in cash-handling chains. Concerns have been raised, that these devices may cause criminals to panic, causing them to become violent to customers or staff, [1] however Security Smoke now has its own European Standard EN-8 which specifically states that it must not be installed in such a way as to create a mantrap. [2] Industrial uses [ edit ]

Atmospheric effects generated using water and dry ice gas unlimited houston or liquid nitrogen can present asphyxiation or breathing hazards. Both carbon dioxide and nitrogen displace ordinary air and the oxygen it contains, creating a risk of subtle anoxia (lack of oxygenation) for people working in these atmospheres. Adequate ventilation is essential to ensure that artists and technicians are surrounded by breathable air. Carbon dioxide has the added hazard of interfering with the normal breathing reflex, which is sensitive to carbon dioxide levels in the air. Nitrogen has no effect on the breathing reflex, but this creates its v gas station own hazard in that a person breathing pure nitrogen can lose consciousness from lack of oxygen without any warning signs.

Two studies, a Health Hazard Evaluation completed in 1994 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, [4] and another one in 2000 by the Department of Community and Preventative Medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and ENVIRON; [5] both prepared for Actors Equity and the League of American Theaters and Producers, focused on the effects on actors and performers in Broadway musicals. The d cypha electricity conclusion of both studies was that there was irritation of mucous membranes such as the eyes and the respiratory tract associated with extended peak exposure to theatrical fog. Exposure guidelines were outlined in the 2000 study that, it was determined, should prevent actors from suffering adverse impact to their health or vocal abilities.

In May 2005, a study published in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine, [7] conducted by the School of Environment and Health at the University of British Columbia, looked at adverse respiratory effects in crew members on a wide variety of entertainment venues ranging from live theaters, concerts, television and film productions to a video arcade. This study determined that cumulative exposure to mineral oil and glycol-based fogs were associated with acute and chronic adverse effects on respiratory health. This study found that short-term exposure to glycol fog was associated with coughing, dry throat, headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, and tiredness. This study also found long-term exposure to smoke and fog was associated with both short-term and long-term respiratory problems such as chest tightness and wheezing. Personnel working closest to the fog machines had reduced lung function results o gastro.

The Professional Lighting and Sound Association has compiled a standard for theatrical fogs or artificial mists compositions for use in entertainment venues that are not likely to be harmful to otherwise healthy performers, technicians, or audience members of normal working age, which is 18 to 64 years of age, inclusive. [8] This standard was based primarily (though not exclusively) upon the findings of a report commissioned for them by the Cohen Group [9] and applies to only those fog fluid compositions that consist of a mixture of water and glycol (so-called water based fog fluid).

Short term exposure to glycol fog can be associated with headaches, dizziness, drowsiness and tiredness. Long term exposure to smoke and fog can be related to upper airway and voice symptoms. Extended (multi-year) exposure to smoke and fog has been associated with both short-term and long-term respiratory health problems. Efforts should be made to reduce exposure to theatrical smoke to as low a level as possible. The use of digital effects in post production on film types of electricity pdf and television sets can be considered a safer practise than using theatrical smoke and fog during filming, [10] although this is not always practical.