French civil code 2016 electricity word search answers


Where the performance of several contracts is necessary for the putting into effect of one and the same operation and one of them disappears, those contracts whose performance is rendered impossible by this disappearance lapse, as do those for which the performance of the contract which has disappeared was a decisive condition of the consent of one of its parties.

Art. 1195. – If a change of circumstances that was unforeseeable at the time of the conclusion of the contract renders performance excessively onerous for a party who had not accepted the risk of such a change, that party may ask the other contracting party to renegotiate the contract. chapter 7 electricity and magnetism The first party must continue to perform his obligations during renegotiation.

In the case of refusal or the failure of renegotiations, the parties may agree to terminate the contract from the date and on the conditions which they determine, or by a common agreement ask the court to set about its adaptation. In the absence of an agreement within a reasonable time, the court may, on the request of a party, revise the contract or put an end to it, from a date and subject to such conditions as it shall determine.

A contract is also a nullity where its purpose is to conceal part of the price where it concerns a sale of immovable property, a transfer of business assets or clientele, an assignment of a right under a lease, or the benefit of a promise of a lease relating to all or part of immovable property and all or part of the difference in value payable in a contract of exchange or in a division of immovable property, business assets or clientele.

One of the parties to a contract (the ‘stipulator’) may require a promise from the other party (the ‘promisor’) to accomplish an act of performance for the benefit of a third party (the ‘beneficiary’). 21 The third party may be a future person but must be exactly identified or must be able to be determined at the time of the performance of the promise.

Art. 1222. – Having given notice to perform, a creditor may also himself, within a reasonable time and at a reasonable cost, have an obligation performed or, with the prior authorisation of the court, may have something which has been done in breach of an obligation destroyed. He may claim reimbursement of sums of money employed for this purpose from the debtor.

Where the acts of performance exchanged were useful only on the full performance of the contract which has been terminated, the parties must restore the whole of what they have obtained from each other. Where the acts of performance which were exchanged were useful to both parties from time to time during the reciprocal performance of the contract, there is no place for restitution in respect of the period before the last act of performance which was not reflected in something received in return; in this case, termination is termed resiling from the contract. 23

In the case of a pure and simple affirmation by a court of appeal of a decision awarding compensation as reparation of harm, the latter bears interest by operation of law at the rate set by legislation from the giving of judgment at first instance. In other situations, compensation awarded on appeal bears interest from the appellate decision.

Art. 1315. – A joint and several debtor who is sued by the creditor may set up defences which are common to all the co-debtors, such as nullity or termination, and those which are available to him personally. He may not set up defences which are personal to the other debtors, such as the grant of a deferral. grade 6 science electricity multiple choice test However, where a defence which is personal to another debtor, such as set-off or release of the debt, extinguishes a separate part of the debt owed by that debtor, he may take advantage of it to reduce the total of the debt.

Art. 1320. – Where an act of performance is indivisible, either by its nature or by the terms of the contract, each creditor of the obligation may require and receive satisfaction in full, subject to a duty to account to the others. However, he may not on his own dispose of the right arising from the obligation, nor accept its value in place of the thing.

The debtor may set up against the assignee defences inherent in the debt itself, such as nullity, the defence of non-performance, termination or the right to set off related debts. He may also set up defences which arose from the relations with the assignor before the assignment became enforceable against him, such as the grant of a deferral, the release of a debt, or the set-off of debts which are not related.

Subrogation may be agreed without the concurrence of the creditor, but only where the debt has fallen due or the period for payment was set for the debtor’s benefit. In such case the instrument of loan and the receipt must be entered into before a notary, it must be declared in the instrument of loan that the sum has been borrowed in order to have the debt satisfied, and in the receipt it must be declared that the satisfaction has been effected from sums paid for this purpose by the new creditor.

However, the subrogated person is entitled only to interest at the rate set by legislation from the moment of a notice to perform, unless he has agreed a new rate of interest with the debtor. The interest on either basis is guaranteed by any security attached to the creditor’s right, but where the security was created by third parties, this is limited to their initial undertaking unless they consent to extend their obligation.

As against a subrogated creditor, the debtor may set up the defences inherent in the debt itself, such as nullity, the defence of non-performance, termination or the right to set off related debts. He may also set up defences which arose from the relations with the subrogating party before the subrogation became enforceable against him, such as the grant of a deferral, the release of a debt, or the set-off of debts which are not related.

Anything received by a creditor from a guarantor in return for the discharge of his guarantee must be set against the debt and to this extent discharges the principal debtor. chapter 7 electricity test The other guarantors remain bound only to the extent which remains after deduction of the share of the guarantor who has been discharged, or of the value he has provided if that exceeds his share.

Where it is in electronic form, it must use a reliable process of identification which guarantees its relationship with the act to which it is attached. The reliability of the process is presumed in the absence of proof to the contrary where an electronic signature is created, the identity of the signatory is ensured and the integrity of the act is guaranteed on the conditions fixed by decree of the Conseil d’État.

Art. 1376. – A signed instrument by which a single party undertakes an obligation towards another to pay him a sum of money or deliver to him fungible property does not constitute proof of it unless it bears the signature of the one who undertook the obligation, as well as a statement, written by the signatory himself, of the sum or of the quantity in both words and numbers. In case of a discrepancy between the two, the signed instrument is equivalent to proof of the sum written in words.

2 General note. The French uses “she” (elle) in this context because of the reference to la partie. Throughout the translation we follow the convention of English statutory drafting and use the masculine singular personal and possessive pronoun (which are to be read as referring equally to the feminine or neuter) rather than using “he/she”, “his/her” etc., or some form of circumlocution.

8 Arts 1125 to 1127-6 implement Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market (‘Directive on electronic commerce’) arts 9–11. Where the text of the Ordonnance follows the wording or the terminology of the French version of the Directive, we have used the counterpart in the English version of the Directive.

11 ‘Employee’ here (and in art. 1242) translates ‘préposé.’ While this includes a person who works for another under a contract of employment (‘contrat de travail’), it is wider and extends to other situations where there is a ‘relationship of subordination’. natural electricity examples The other party to such a relationship is termed le commettant, which we translate as ‘employer’: see art. 1242. We reserve the English ‘agent’ to translate ‘mandataire’: see art. 1301, below.

12 ‘[A] person subject to an order empowering their family to act on their behalf’ translates in an explanatory way ‘la personne faisant l’objet d’une habilitation familiale.’ On this habilitation familiale see arts 494-4 et seq of the Civil Code as inserted by Ordonnance n° 2015-1288 of 15 October 2015 concerning the simplification and modernisation of family law.

14 La résolution is used in the Code civil as promulgated in 1804 to denote the retroactive termination of a contract, coupled with (in principle) restitution and counter-restitution: this follows from the significance of its definition and use of la condition résolutoire: see arts 1183–1184 C.civ. Under the new law, la résolution is said to put an end to the contract (art. 1229 al. 1), but the effect of this may be retroactive or may instead be prospective, where it is termed ‘la résiliation’ (art. 1229 al. 3). We therefore use the neutral word ‘termination’ for la résolution and ‘resiling from a contract’ for ‘la résiliation’.

27 This translates ‘de plein droit’. harry mileaf electricity 1 7 pdf While in many discussions, this is to be understood to refer to ‘strict liability’ (as opposed to liability for fault) and the producer is liable strictly under these provisions, translating the first paragraph of art. 1245-10 as ‘The producer is liable strictly unless he proves’ one of the defences then set out would suggest that the defence changes the basis of liability (which is, of course, not the case).

29 ‘His patrimonial rights and actions’ translates ‘ses droits et actions à caractère patrimonial’. Le patrimoine consists of the totality of a person’s property, rights and obligations. It is used by the Code civil, inter alia, in the context of a minor’s property (e.g. art. 387-1) and in the context of matrimonial property regimes (e.g. art. 1569).

31 ‘The Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations is a special institution charged with the administration of deposits and consignments, the provision of services relating to the funds whose management has been entrusted to it, and the exercise of other functions of the same nature which are lawfully delegated to it’: art. L. 518-2 of the French Monetary and Financial Code (extract)). See further