Fresh from the labs_ the latest discoveries in science, medicine and technology – livemint

The innovation is based on a technology called quantitative phase spectroscopy. Gas mileage comparison As a laser sweeps through a visible spectrum of light, sensors capture how each discrete light frequency interacts with a sample of blood.

This technique enables the processing of thousands of cells per minute, which is “a huge improvement to the 40 minutes it currently takes a field technician to stain, prepare and read a slide to personally look for infection”, says Adam Wax, professor of biomedical engineering at Duke.

The researchers identified 23 parameters that are statistically significant for detecting malaria. Gas definition wikipedia As the disease progresses, red blood cells decrease in volume, lose haemoglobin and deform. Done with electricity tattoo book This affects features such as cell volume, perimeter, shape and centre of mass.

For a more accurate reading, the researchers turned to deep learning—a method by which computers teach themselves how to distinguish between different objects. 1 unit electricity price india By feeding data on more than 1,000 healthy and diseased cells into a computer, the deep learning programme determined which sets of measurements at which thresholds most clearly distinguished healthy from diseased cells, according to the authors of the study.

When they put the resulting algorithm to the test with hundreds of cells, it was able to correctly spot malaria 97-100% of the time. Electricity distribution map The researchers are now seeking to use the technology to develop a diagnostic device through a start-up company called M2 Photonics Innovations Llc. Gaston yla agrupacion santa fe 2016 They hope to demonstrate that the device based on the technology would be accurate and cost-efficient enough to be useful in the fight against malaria. E electricity bill Wax of Duke University has also received funding to begin exploring whether the technique can be used for detecting cancerous cells in blood samples. Electricity worksheets grade 9 Smallest-reported artificial virus could help advance gene therapy

In a move that promises to advance gene therapy, scientists have engineered the smallest reported virus-like shell that can assemble by itself. Electricity physics pdf The shell could someday carry therapeutic DNA or RNA and transfer it to human cells. Electricity and magnetism study guide 5th grade The report appears in Journal of the American Chemical Society (bit.ly/2dJEiPR).

These are the smallest virus-like structures reported to date, both synthetic and native, with the ability to adapt and transfer small and large nucleic acids. Gas line jobs in wv The design thus offers a promising solution for engineering bespoke artificial viruses with desired functions, say the authors of the report.

Gene therapy is an experimental treatment to fix faulty genetic material and help a patient repel or recover from a disease. Electricity worksheets It does so by replacing or adding a gene to correct a faulty, disease-causing one. A gas has no volume Gene therapy is fraught with much hype and high-profile failures. Electricity off peak hours But that aside, it remains a promising route to treat a range of ailments—from rare genetic diseases to common conditions such as diabetes.

One possible approach is to copy the way viruses behave. Gas variables pogil extension questions When they infect people, viruses inject their genetic material into human cells, say the researchers.

Artificial viruses have been engineered to mimic this step, but they tend to clump or are not uniform in size, which can hinder their effectiveness. R gas constant chemistry The researchers wanted to address these issues. Gas in babies treatment Rather than using full proteins, they used short peptide sequences designed to assemble into tiny gene carriers, which are smaller than previously reported synthetic viruses and even naturally occurring viruses. Electricity 101 powerpoint Lab testing showed that their artificial viral shells were uniform in size and didn’t clump. Electricity cost las vegas The particles could encase DNA or RNA and transfer the genetic material to human cells without harm. Gas zauberberg Depending on the introduced material, the recipient cells then either expressed a new protein or stopped expressing their own protein.

To be sure, clinical trials to test various gene therapy treatments are under way. Electricity in water pipes However, while there are hundreds of early clinical trials, only a handful of late-stage ones have reached completion, wrote Emily Mullin in a 29 September report in MIT Technology Review (bit.ly/2dvbknG). Electricity distribution network A majority of promising gene therapies are in phase I trials and probably won’t reach patients for many years, she concludes.

Silicon-based transistors that are the heart of electronic devices have been getting progressively miniaturized, allowing those devices to perform faster while consuming less power. On q gas station okc Even silicon has its limits, prompting researchers to explore alternatives that are better performing. Electricity units to kwh In a study published on 7 October in journal Science, University of Texas at Dallas (UT Dallas) engineers and their colleagues at Berkeley and Stanford universities describe a novel transistor made with a new combination of materials that is even smaller than the smallest possible silicon-based transistor.

As current flows through a transistor, the stream of electrons travels through a channel, like water flowing through a faucet into a sink. Gas knife lamb A “gate” in the transistor controls the flow of electrons, shutting the flow off and on in a fraction of a second. List of electricity usage by appliances As of today, the best/smallest silicon transistor devices commercially available have a gate length larger than 10 nanometers. Electricity billy elliot lyrics The theoretical lower limit for silicon transistors is about 5 nanometers. Electricity word search puzzle The device the researchers demonstrated in this article has a gate size of 1 nanometer—about one order of magnitude smaller. Gasbuddy trip The researchers believe it should be possible to reduce the size of a computer chip significantly utilizing this configuration.

One of the challenges in designing such small transistors is that electrons can randomly tunnel through a gate when the current is supposed to be shut off. O goshi technique Reducing this current leakage is a priority. Mp electricity bill payment The device the researchers demonstrated shows “more than two orders of magnitude reduction in leakage current compared to its silicon counterpart, which results in reduced power consumption”, which “means, for example, that a cellphone with this technology built in would not have to be recharged as often”, according to Moon Kim, professor of materials science and engineering at UT Dallas and an author of the study.

In place of silicon, the researchers built their prototype device with a class of materials called transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Gas bike alley Specifically, their experimental device structure used molybdenum disulfide for the channel material and a single-walled carbon nanotube for the gate. Electricity related words The researchers acknowledge there are many technical challenges before large-scale manufacturing of the new transistor is practical or even possible. Electricity water hose analogy “Large-scale processing and manufacturing of TMD devices down to such small gate lengths will require future innovations,” said Kim. Electricity formulas grade 9 Brain’s biological clock stimulates thirst before sleep

The brain’s biological clock stimulates thirst in the hours before you sleep, according to a study published in journal Nature by McGill University researchers. Electricity distribution losses The finding—and the discovery of the molecular process behind it—provides the first insight into how the clock regulates a physiological function. Emoji gas station And while the research was conducted on mice, “the findings could point the way toward drugs that target receptors implicated in problems that people experience from shift work or jet lag”, said the study’s senior author Charles Bourque, a professor in McGill’s department of neurology and scientist at the Brain Repair and Integrative Neuroscience Program at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, in a 6 October statement.

Scientists knew that mice show a surge in water intake in the two hours before sleep. Us electricity supply voltage The McGill team, which included lead author and PhD student Claire Gizowski, found that restricting the access of mice to water during the period resulted in significant dehydration towards the end of the sleep cycle. Electricity dance moms song So the increase in water intake before sleep is a pre-emptive strike that guards against dehydration and serves to keep the animal healthy and properly hydrated.

The researchers looked for the mechanism that sets this thirst response in motion. Electricity distribution costs It’s well established that the brain harbours a hydration sensor with thirst neurons in that sensor organ. Gas blower will not start They wondered if SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus)—the brain region that regulates circadian cycles (biological clock)—could be communicating with the thirst neurons.

The team suspected that vasopressin, a neuropeptide produced by SCN, might play a critical role. Electricity and circuits class 6 pdf To confirm that, they used so-called “sniffer cells” designed to glow in the presence of vasopressin. Electricity usage calculator spreadsheet When they applied these cells to rodent brain tissue and then electrically stimulated SCN, Bourque says, “We saw a big increase in the output of the sniffer cells, indicating that vasopressin is being released in that area as a result of stimulating the clock.”

To explore if vasopressin was stimulating thirst neurons, the researchers employed optogenetics, a cutting-edge technique that uses laser light to turn neurons on or off. Gas yourself Using genetically engineered mice whose vasopressin neurons contain a light activated molecule, the researchers were able to show that vasopressin does, indeed, turn on thirst neurons.

This advance in our understanding of how the clock executes a circadian rhythm, say the researchers, has applications in situations such as jet lag and shift work since all our organs follow a circadian rhythm, which helps optimize how they function.