Friction stir spot welding _ 2016-04-07 _ assembly magazine

As automakers expand the use of aluminum in vehicles, interest in alternative joining technologies, such as friction stir spot welding (FSSW), is increasing.

Also known as friction stir spot joining, FSSW has been around since 2003. Gas efficient cars under 5000 The process was developed by Mazda Motor Corp. Electricity storage handbook and Kawasaki Heavy Industries to assemble the aluminum hood and rear doors of the RX-8 sports car. Electricity deregulation choices and challenges Since then, FSSW has been used by Toyota Motor Corp., General Motors Co., Ford Motor Co., Fiat Chrysler Automobiles and PSA Peugeot Citroen. Electricity use estimator The technology is also getting interest from manufacturers of airplanes, appliances, trucks, trains, off-road equipment and even consumer electronics.

Now well-established as a process for joining aluminum to aluminum, researchers are studying whether FSSW can be used to join aluminum to steel and steel to steel. Arkansas gas and oil commission In addition, a variant of the process—refill FSSW—has recently been introduced. Electricity projects for grade 6 Because it produces a more aesthetic joint than the original process, refill FSSW promises to expand applications for the technology. V lab electricity How it Works

FSSW is a solid-state welding method—the parts don’t melt during welding. Us electricity hertz It does not require flux, filler metal or shielding gas, but it can be used in conjunction with an adhesive or sealant.

The process is performed by applying a rotating cylindrical tool to the metal sheets under pressure. Gas in chest At the tip of the tool is a threaded projection called the pin. Electricity word search printable The configuration and dimensions of the tool, especially the pin, vary depending on the material, the thickness of the sheets, and the strength requirements of the joint.

FSSW is similar to friction stir welding. Electricity merit badge worksheet answers Both techniques use a rotating tool with a pin. Electricity billy elliot chords However, in friction stir welding, the tool traverses along a seam between two metal plates, while in friction spot joining, the tool keeps to one spot.

The process has four steps. Electricity towers in japan First, the tool is positioned perpendicular to the work surface, and it starts to rotate. Gas in back and stomach Tool speed varies, depending on the thickness and grade of the materials. Electricity prices per kwh 2013 For 5000 or 6000 series aluminum, tool speed is typically around 2,000 rpm. Electricity games For other applications, the tool may rotate as fast as 4,500 rpm.

Next, the tool is pushed against the surface of the top sheet. Grade 9 electricity unit test answers Depending on the application, the axial load applied to the sheets can range from 1,470 to 5,880 newtons. Gaston yla agrupacion santa fe (To prevent denting the materials, support is needed on the back side of the joint. Tgas advisors company profile This can be provided by a C-frame, a backing bar or a fixture.)

Friction from the spinning tool heats the materials to temperatures as high as 700 K. Electricity icons free The tool heats the materials to a plastic state, but does not melt them. Power outage houston today In less than 1 second, the pin enters the softened metal. Electricity voltage in germany After the pin has plunged completely into the workpiece—the pin does not fully penetrate the bottom sheet—the tool continues to spin and apply pressure to the joint for a predetermined length of time. Electricity worksheets ks1 During this stage, the materials around the pin are stirred together, and the lapped plates are metallurgically unified in the area surrounding the pin.

At that point, the tool is extracted from the sheets, and the joint is complete. Electricity and circuits The entire process takes 2 seconds or less, depending on the materials.

The top side of the joint has a circular indentation with a small ring-shaped projection along its outer edge. Electricity vs magnetism venn diagram The back surface is unblemished.

For many applications, that bump or crater on the top surface doesn’t matter. Electricity 2pm lyrics But, it is an issue if aesthetics or aerodynamics is important, and that’s what led to the development of refill FSSW.

Instead of a single rotating tool, refill FSSW employs a three-piece tool. Gas law questions and answers There’s still a rotating pin, but it is surrounded by a sleeve, which rotates in the same direction and speed as the pin, and a clamp ring, which does not rotate.

At the start of the process, all three tools apply downward force to the sheets, explains Mike Spodar, senior welding engineer at Coldwater Machine Co. F gas regulations The pin and sleeve heat the material and begin to penetrate the top sheet. Z gas cd juarez telefono Next, the pin retracts slightly, while the sleeve continues downward into the bottom sheet. Astrid y gaston lima menu prices At a preset distance, the sleeve reverses direction and the pin moves down again. Gas under a dollar When both the sleeve and pin are flush with the work surface, rotation stops and the tool is held in place to allow the joint to cool.

Although the joints created by refill FSSW are not any stronger than those created by the standard process, they are more aesthetic. Find a gas station near me “The process produces a flat, smooth surface across the top of the sheet. Electricity number There’s very little marking on the bottom side of the joint, and on the face side of the joint, where the tools were, there are concentric rings,” says Spodar.

The key variables are weld time, weld depth and tool speed. Electricity quiz 4th grade The sleeve can be extended up to 8 millimeters to allow welding of thick sheets or multiple sheets. V gas llc “The sleeve just needs to get into the bottom component,” says Spodar. Gas finder near me “It does not need to penetrate a lot. Rahal e gas card Typically, we need to get 0.2 to 0.3 millimeter into the bottom material.”

Because of the extra step, refill FSSW is slightly slower than the standard process. Gas dryer vs electric dryer calculator “It takes about 1 second of travel per millimeter of thickness, but we can move faster than that,” says Spodar. Electricity production in usa “For a 1 millimeter thick part, it would be 0.5 to 0.8 second down and another 0.5 second up.”

Both FSSW and refill FSSW can be performed with a stand-alone pedestal machine, or they can be integrated with a three-axis gantry robot or a six-axis articulated robot. Gas variables pogil answers Either way, engineers should ensure to provide enough access above and around the joint for the tooling. Gas x coupon 2014 Advantages and Limitations

Compared with other joining methods, FSSW and refill FSSW have numerous advantages. Gas zyklon b For one, the process is not affected by surface oxides or contaminants. Gas tax in washington state And, because the process does not apply excessive heat, warpage of the sheets is minimal, even with hundreds of joints. Electricity youtube The process does not generate spatter, fumes or electromagnetic noise.

Another advantage is strength. Gas outage In tests, Kawasaki used refill FSSW to weld 60 coupons of 6061-T6 aluminum (0.635 millimeter thick) to 2024-T3 aluminum (0.508 millimeter thick). Gas in oil briggs and stratton engine Kawasaki found that the joints had an average lap shear strength of 2,363 newtons. Gas near me In comparison, the same materials joined with resistance spot welding had an average lap shear strength of 1,002 newtons, while joints created with a rivet 0.125 inch in diameter produced an average lap shear strength of 1,257 newtons. Electricity receiver The joints made with refill FSSW also had better fatigue strength.

“When you compare the economics, friction spot joining…is one-fourth to one-third the cost of other methods, like resistance welding, riveting or clinching,” says Samir Patel, robotics director of product and advanced engineering at Kawasaki Robotics (USA) Inc. F gas logo “You don’t need a power supply. Que gases componen el aire You don’t need water cooling.”

Using less electricity also means that the robot’s dress package is less expensive and cumbersome. La gas “There are no large power cables to lug around,” says Spodar.

Because there are no consumables, FSSW is also more cost-effective than fasteners, such as rivets or clinch nuts, says Patel. Gas news uk Fasteners also add weight to the assembly, and they can introduce the risk of galvanic corrosion. Static electricity bill nye full episode What’s Next

While the automotive industry has been the early adopter of FSSW, the aerospace industry is catching up. All 4 gas giants names For example, Kawasaki’s aerospace division has used FSSW to assemble cockpit doors for helicopters. E electricity bill payment And, manufacturers of commercial jets are looking at the technology as a way to replace rivets for attaching aluminum skin to stringers and frames. Static electricity examples Considering that a jetliner contains millions of rivets, the potential for cost and weight savings with FSSW is enormous.

To accomplish that goal, Kawasaki has developed a unique two-robot system for assembling large aerospace assemblies. Electricity physics ppt One six-axis robot is equipped with the welding tool, while the other, working on the opposite side of the assembly, is equipped with a backing bar to support the back side of the joint. B games virus The two robots work precisely in concert, moving from one joint to the next. Gas bubble in throat For extra rigidity, two of the six axes on each robot are not rotary axes, but linear ones driven by a ballscrew.

Research is also being done to determine if the technique can be used to join aluminum to titanium, aluminum to magnesium, aluminum to steel, and steel to steel. Gas vs electric oven running cost The problem, says Patel, is that it takes time and money to develop the process parameters for various alloy and thickness combinations. Gas mask bong how to use Unlike resistance spot welding, which is backed by decades of process development, FSSW is still in its relative

Another issue, at least for assemblies containing steel, is tool life. Hp gas online booking no With aluminum, assemblers can expect a joining tool to last for hundreds of thousands of joints. Gas 2 chainz Mazda claims it can get more than 1 million joints from a single tool. O gastroenterologista cuida do que Tool life will be much lower when joining steel.