Future war stories future war stories from the east the area 88 ova (1985) electricity usage by appliance


Can a warrior ever leave the war? Once soldiers has seen the face of battle, can they return home and forget the fields of slaughter? Forget the shadow of death as they resume their old lives far away from battle? That is some of the question posed by a rather unique military manga title that was exported to the West and published by Eclipse Comics during the second wave of Anime/Manga in the late 1970’s-1980’s that went by the odd name of “Area 88”. electrical supply company near me Little did we know back in 1987 that Area 88 was one of the most iconic military manga titles in Japan and would go on to be developed into an OVA that was also sold in the West via US Manga Corps. However, unlike many other anime/manga titles that were imported to the western market, most know of Area 88’s existence due to an SNES video game. In this installment of Future War Stories of the East, FWS will be exploring the story of Shin, a Shanghaied mercenary fighter pilot serving in a North African war in the 1980’s at the airbase of Area 88!

This noted military manga series that became an icon of its time and something unique during the sci-fi dominated Japan told the sad story of mercenary pilots fighting at a secret air base, called Area 88, in a foreign desert during a civil war. The creator of Area 88 was manga artist Kaoru Shintani, who had worked with the great Leiji Matsumoto on some of his most noted works. First published in 1979 by Shogakukan Inc, it would run for 23 volumes until 1986. Speaking to its popularity, Area 88 is still a known and celebrated property around the world. Given the success of the manga, Area 88 was transformed into an a three-part OVA in 1985-1986 by Studio Pierrot , with dozens of model kits of the real-world combat aircraft, and even a video game in 1989 to follow. What drew people to this military manga was the unique story of mercenary pilots fighting in a fictional North African nation with the plight of Shin being the focus, but he was surrounded by a cast of characters that enriched the story. There was also realism paid to the air combat and the hardware used in the some of the early stories. Adding to this realism was the price paid by the characters going out on missions on a physical and emotional level. Much like Game of Thrones, core characters died that were not just red shirt security officers. There is also discussion of how former soldiers transformed into mercenary pilots due to their own inability to adjust to normal society. Some have grown to love death and killing, some cannot make a living any other way. Is Shin going to become one of them? All of this adds nice layers to a solid premise that as endured.

In the original manga, the story is set around 1979 with real-world history and events mixed with the fictional hardcore reality of Area 88. electricity worksheets ks1 In the story, the North African nation of Asran is in the middle of a civil war over who will be the successor to the dead king. To protect and reunite the Kingdom via win this bloody internal conflict, Ling Zek of Asran had to go outside of the Kingdom to find soldiers and pilots due to the Soviet Union supporting the dead king’s other brother for access to the throne and the massive oil reserves of Asran. These private military contractors (called the Asran Foreign Legion) sign a three-year contract with the Kingdom that can make these freelancer pilots rich, if they keep their costs down. Pilots earn money for their missions and kills, but they have to pay the ammunition and repairs out of their own pockets…more or else, assuring these pilots are there at Area 88 for all three years. This even includes replacement aircraft as well. gas in back symptoms To get out of the contract early, one has to pay $1.5 million in 1979 money ($4.9 million today), go AWOL (which will get you hunted down), or die in the cockpit. While the majority of pilots at Area 88 are there of their own free will, that is not true of our main character.

The late 1970’s were a translation period for anime and manga with the market expanding along with secondary products tied to the original work. Like all things, it seems, the global firestorm that was Star Wars altered the world of manga/anime as well, magnifying some the groundwork laid by works like S pace Cruiser Yamato. While giant piloted robots, space fighters, and star soldiers were fine topics, the Japanese had an uneasy history with more realistic military themes and elements, due to the shameful Imperial Japan past. Military mangas and animes were rare and publishers were considered that military titles would be poor sellers. Science fiction and fantasy being mixed with military themes was more accepted…then comes Area 88 in 1979. Area 88, both the manga and the OVA came at interesting points in the respective histories of their media form. When the serialized Area 88 manga was released in 1979 in the manga magazine Shōnen Big Comics, it was firmly aimed at the male audience and was titled a “Shōnen” manga. Speaking to the concept of Area 88 being thought highly by the publisher, despite the post-Vietnam War era, Shōnen Big Comics was the most popular manga magazine in Japan at the time. The political climate was prefect for Area 88, with a number of pocket wars fought during the Cold War like the Rhodesian Bush War, the Ethiopian Civil War, Western Sahara War, Soviet-Afghan War, and Angolan Civil War; along with the rise in veterans entering into private military service and the founding of Soldier of Fortune magazine in 1975.

The series opens with a bang, as spearheading armor is crushed under airstrikes, with our main character Shin Kazama pounding tanks into scrap metal with his F-8 Crusader. Over the course of the first episode, we learn about Shin being betrayed just after he and his friend got jobs at Yamato Airlines. After a night of heavy drinking in Paris, Shin was fooled by his friend and classmate Satoru to sign a contract for the Asran Foreign Service. Satoru was wanted to get Shin out of the way due to Shin being in a relationship with the president of Yamato Airlines daughter Ryoko. Satoru then steps into Shin’s place as the likely successor to the president and being Ryoko’s new man. This is told via a flashback as Shin attempts to relax after a mission and before Shin meeting a Japanese photographer that was assigned to cover the Asran civil war. The pictures that he takes allow Ryoko to finally know what became of Shin. electricity in salt water experiment Given the circumstances that cause Shin to find himself at Area 88, he is going on repeated missions to slay enough enemies to pay off his $1.5 million contract in the shortest amount of time. Then his Crusader is damaged by a MiG and he nearly dies going home. Given the damage, the F-8 is scrapped and Shin is forced to buy another plane, delaying his return to Japan and Ryoko by months if not another year. Shin enters into a dark place

Area 88 has a rather interesting history in the West that is unique even among titles imported in the second wave of anime/manga. In original Japanese manga began its run in 1979, the same year the events in Area 88 occur, and the OVA was released in three parts between 1985 and 1986 just as the manga series was concluding in Japan. electricity deregulation choices and challenges At this time, Japanese comics and animation was becoming more popular and more widely popular in America, causing companies to import more titles to the US shores. While anime titles were imported to the western market in the form of OVAs and TV shows, manga was far less common due to the harder translation and altering of the panel orientation. In 1987, smaller comic press Eclipse Comics, under their International brand, entered into a partnership with Viz Media to publish some of the first manga titles in the United States in a biweekly schedule on a wholesale scale. Among these three titles was Area 88. First released in May 26th, 1987, #1 of Area 88 carried a special introduction page informing the buyer of the unique status and importance of what they held in their hand. 20 days before the release of Area 88, First Comics published L one Wolf and Cub, one of finest manga of all time (and my favorite). Viz Comics and Eclipse would jointly publish 36 issues of the translated Area 88 until Viz Communications lost faith in Eclipse due to the poor sales that conflicted with what Eclipse had forecast. That triggered shift from Eclipse to Viz with issue #37 in December 1988 and along change in the cover art art to photographs of military aircraft and pilots from the manga/anime Area 88 artwork. The changes did not help sales and on May 1st, 1989, the last issue of Area 88 was released and it was never picked up by another English language comic book company.

It was not all bad news for manga in America. Quickly following behind the Eclipse/Viz three translated manga titles was Marvel’s mature imprint, Epic, publishing Akira in 1988.That is the odd thing about Area 88, it was a comic book first that served as the introduction to the OVA VHS tapes and Laserdisc released by US Manga Corps in 1992 in three tapes (Art I, II, III). These would be sold at places like Hastings, Suncoast, specialized stores, and comic book shops. I would regularly see the Area 88 VHS tapes at Suncoast and even rentable at places like Block Buster (I miss those places!) during the 1990’s as well in advertisement in the backs of various magazines. At the time the Area 88 OVA was being carried in the store and in anime catalogs, many Otaku back in the day would see the return of the Area 88 manga in another Viz property: Animerica Magazine. 5 gases Once again, the series would have bad luck and Area 88 was not complete and dropped in January 1995. This would be the last appearance of the Area 88 manga in America. Then there was one more Area 88 product to come from Japan to the shores of the States: U.N. Squadron.

Originally released in 1989 as an branded Area 88 side-scrolled shooter in Japan as an arcade game by CAPCOM, it was ported to the Super Famicom system and later the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in 1991. gas x tablets himalaya Popular in the arcade and on the SNES, some never connected to Area 88 due to the Area 88 title being stripped from the western export release. Why? It is likely due to failure of the Eclipse comics and the limited market for the OVA. It made more sense to just invent a name and attract more buyers to a fun title rather than tap the limited Area 88 fan base in the United States. There were eagle-eyed Otakus that would have connected the OVA/Comic to this popular SNS/arcade 1991 side-scrolling shooter. I can remember my friend Gary and I discussing the connection between Area 88 and U.N. Squadron. This all adds up to making Area 88 a highly unusual Japanese import that several products from several media types were basically available all at the same timeframe which is very rare for an imported manga/anime product of the 1980’s. What happened after the 1990’s? After the US Manga Corps license on Area 88 was up, ADV Films would take up the Area 88 mantle and release the OVA on DVD in 2006, but only Act I and III…not II. It was recently re-released by another company with all three episodes.