Gas-to-liquids (gtl) technologies_ a remedy for low natural gas prices in the marcellus shale _ marcellus. com

The energy industry continues to be astounded by the superabundance of the Marcellus shale, a band of natural gas-rich Devonian shale that stretches across the eastern Appalachian basin.

The Marcellus, which produced little gas 10 years ago, currently accounts for about 20% of the nation’s output. Gas vs diesel engine The result has been cheap energy prices, spectacular job growth and renewed prosperity for regional economies. Electricity joules But the Marcellus is threatened by its own success. La gastronomie Its extraordinary productivity, combined with the lack of an adequate pipeline infrastructure to move the gas to other regions of the country, is exerting strong downward pressure on prices.

Lower gas prices are making it less attractive for producers to drill wells, and in some cases are forcing them to temporarily shut in new production. Gas mask bong nfl Industry is talking about increased merger and acquisition activity as large companies with deep pockets buy small producers without the resources to weather the downturn. Gas dryer vs electric dryer cost savings In addition, lower prices are raising the specter of the first annual decline in production since hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques were introduced to develop the Marcellus.

Production across the eastern US, which includes the Marcellus and the Utica shale plays, has dropped significantly. Year 6 electricity worksheets How Gas-to-Liquids Technologies Can Help

But there is a silver lining to this picture. Gas up yr hearse The discrepancy between the spot prices at the Marcellus and the Henry Hub is creating an arbitrage opportunity in the form of gas-to-liquids (GTL) technologies that can convert gas into products such as high quality gasoline, methanol, or diluent.

The opportunity to convert low-value gas into high-value products allows exploration and production companies to protect their investments by monetizing undervalued fossil fuel resources. Gas monkey monster truck This also allows the nation to protect the economic viability of a region with potential as a net natural gas exporter.

GTL technologies also can benefit the Marcellus in another way. Gas mileage comparison Much of the gas in the Marcellus is wet gas. Gas definition wikipedia While dry gas consists mostly of methane, wet gas includes natural gas liquids (NGLs) such as propane, butane, and ethane that can be extracted and sold separately.

Energy companies can sell propane into regional markets and transport butane to refineries via truck or rail, but the shale revolution has created a glut of ethane, which can only be stripped out through an expensive deep refrigeration process that is often not justified by current low ethane prices.

As a result, ethane is being “rejected” into the natural gas stream to be burned for heating, cooking, and electricity generation, or left in the well when rejection limits are reached. Done with electricity tattoo book GTL technologies can be used at midstream gas processing plants to convert “stranded” ethane into valuable liquid end products. 1 unit electricity price india Not All GTL Technologies Are Alike

The best-known GTL technology is Fischer-Tropsch (FT), developed in Germany in the 1920s and used by the petroleum-starved Third Reich during World War II to convert coal into diesel. Electricity distribution map The problem however, is that it produces a synthetic crude that must be further refined. Gaston yla agrupacion santa fe 2016 This adds considerably to the expense, especially at a small scale. E electricity bill While efforts are underway to develop an FT technology that is economically viable at small scales, the two-step synthesis and refining process is an inherent limitation.

The other main GTL technology is methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technology, which was used by Mobil to produce gasoline at a plant in New Zealand for about 11 years starting in 1985. Electricity worksheets grade 9 The main drawbacks of MTG involve its limited catalyst lifetime and high capital cost, which restrict viability at small scales.

While various GTL technologies exist, Primus Green Energy’s STG+™ technology is suited to small-scale applications. Electricity physics pdf It economically transforms gas into valuable liquid end products at scales as small as 5,000 MMbtu/d, which is equivalent to 2.8 MMcfd of ethane. Electricity and magnetism study guide 5th grade Furthermore, the technology can use a range of gas feedstock types, including pipeline gas, dry or wet wellhead gas, ethane, residue gas from fractionation plants or mixed natural gas liquids.

Consider the advantages for use of STG+ in the Marcellus, where small volumes may be stranded for economic reasons — the gas does not command a high enough price to make it worthwhile to develop it — or because there is no pipeline infrastructure to get it to market. Gas line jobs in wv In addition to being flexible in terms of feed gas requirements, it is also flexible in terms of end products. Electricity worksheets One desirable end product is zero sulfur-zero benzene gasoline that can be sold into a refinery blending pool or directly into the wholesale market as RBOB or CBOB grade gasoline.

STG+™ also can produce methanol or diluent. A gas has no volume Methanol (CH3OH) is a versatile chemical that is used in many ways – from serving as a basic chemical building block for paints, plastics and solvents to innovative applications in energy, transportation fuels (it is a biodiesel blending component) and fuel cells.

Methanol produced through the STG+™ process can be sold into regional markets at a price that is typically cheaper than methanol imported from the Gulf Coast, where most US methanol is made.

The ability to produce methanol onsite also satisfies the demand for use in oil and gas production operations, where it functions as a corrosion or scale inhibitor, a friction reducer, an inhibitor of hydrate formation and a fracturing fluid flowback enhancer. Electricity off peak hours The onsite production of methanol through the STG+™ process helps gas companies save on the trouble and expense of sourcing methanol from distant providers.

As a result of its industry-leading efficiency, the STG+™ technology is more cost effective than either FT or MTG at scales of 10,000 b/d or less while also offering the same advantages at a larger scale.

The process starts with steam methane reforming, in which natural gas or other hydrocarbon gases react with steam at a high temperature and pressure to produce synthesis gas, or syngas (a mixture of H2 and CO). Gas variables pogil extension questions As mentioned, the STG+™ process can accommodate a range of natural gas feedstock types, including wellhead gas with no limits on C2+, wellhead gas containing up to 25% carbon dioxide and residue gas from fractionation plants.

In the second step, for the STG+™ gasoline system, the syngas is converted into gasoline via methanol and dimethyl-ether intermediates through a proprietary series of fixed bed catalytic reactors. R gas constant chemistry By comparison with other GTL technologies, the STG+™ process minimizes complexity, improves product quality and increases yield, producing 4-5 gal of gasoline per 1 MMbtu of natural gas.

In the third and final step, the reactor output is condensed and separated. Gas in babies treatment The gasoline is sent to storage. Electricity 101 powerpoint Any unconverted gas is then recycled, with a portion being used to fuel the reformer. Electricity cost las vegas The process water is recycled as steam for the reformer, which means that no wastewater is created. Gas zauberberg Opportunity for Marcellus Shale and Beyond