Govt 2306 notes – processes gas constant for air

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The legal voting requirements include 18 years of age, thirty days residency, registered, and no felony offenses. c gastronomie brignais Approximately 45% of all eligible voters have turned out to vote in elections since 1960. The voter turnout among Hispanics and Blacks is usually low because they feel they have little stake in politics. As a general rule, whites vote; minorities do not. Older people and those with higher incomes vote, while the young and poor do not. Those with professional jobs vote; those with blue- and pink-collar jobs do not. This should not be surprising since various means to prevent these people from voting have been used throughout our history. Literacy tests and the white primary were aimed at minorities. The poll tax was used to prevent many lower income persons from voting during much of the 20 th century. How frequent a voter are you? Do you fit the stereotypes above?

well, such as influencing legislation. Interest groups differ on membership, as well. The membership of a political party is extensive (broad activity) and inclusive (everyone) – meaning they include everyone who is interested in a broad range of issues. By contrast, interest groups have a membership that is intensive (specific activity) and exclusive (not everyone) – only those people who share their opinions on a narrow range of issues are welcomed. Be careful, though, since in recent years the parties have from time to time been captured by small groups that act more like interest groups than political parties. The antiwar Democrats of the 1970s and the fundamentalist Christian Republicans of the 1980s and 1990s are two good examples. Because Texas has traditionally had weak political parties, it has had very strong interest groups to fill the gap.

functions. gas finder app First, they act to identify, aggregate and express the interests of different segments of society. Second, they gather and disseminate information. Third, they provide expertise to the government and to their members. Depending on whom they are trying to influence, interest groups use a number of techniques to carry out these functions. In the

executive and legislative arenas, interest groups engage in lobbying, which is presenting views directly to government officials. Lobbying is one of the most successful techniques that interest groups have. Therefore, a lobbyist’s most important asset is access. Can he readily meet with legislators and executives? Lobbying is very effective because the legislature lacks independent sources of information. Interest groups also attempt to influence the legislative and executive branches by influencing elections with money, votes, volunteers and endorsements. This is known as

amicus curiae briefs. These briefs express the opinion of the interest group on a case that is appearing before the court in an attempt to influence the judge’s ruling. The three largest filers of amicus curiae briefs are the US Attorney General’s Office, the American Civil Liberties Union, and the NAACP. A more extensive technique used in the judicial arena is

public arena, interest groups engage in grass roots activities, which include a whole list of techniques from advertising to mass mailings. While interest groups are often vilified in the US, they play an important role in a democracy. They allow citizens to become actively engaged in influencing the government on issues that are of importance to them. In fact, one in three Americans are members of one or more interest groups. 1 unit electricity cost in india As with voting, higher educated, higher income professionals are most likely to be members of interest groups. Do you belong to or have you thought of belonging to an interest group? Why or why not? If you’ve never joined an interest group, give it a try! You might find that you like the experience.

party organization is composed of all those activists, volunteers and party officials that are active in the day-to-day functioning of the party. The party organization is organized like the federal government – it has organizations at the national, state and local levels. That means it is decentralized – decisions and money flow from the bottom to the top. The party organization is also diverse – each organization has its own unique flavor. Among the people in the party organization are the party officials. Check with your text to find out the duties of the following party officials and how they are chosen: the national chair and vice chair, the national executive committee, the state chair and vice chair, the state executive committee, the county chair and county executive committee, and the precinct chair. The precinct chair is the basic level in the party organization in Texas.

party-in-government, the second part of the permanent party organization, is composed of all those elected government officials of the party. You will frequently find conflict between the party organization and the party-in-government over who is in charge of the party and who should determine its course, beliefs, strategy, platform and so forth. year 6 electricity unit Because of the rise of candidate-centered campaigns, candidates no longer need party permission or support to get elected. Too, the party cannot determine who uses its name. Thus government officials are elected with the label of the party, but without party support, endorsement or loyalty.

temporary party structure, sometimes called the Convention System. The temporary party structure occurs every two years beginning with the primary election and ending with the national convention. It may involve people who have no real connection with the party, but rather are ideologues or one-issue groups that do not necessarily represent the party as a whole (much less the voters). Nonetheless, because these people attend the party conventions in large numbers, it is these people who decide party issues. The convention system is described in detail in your text. It consists of the precinct convention/caucus, the county convention, the state convention and the national convention. Each convention level has its own responsibilities. The national convention adopts a national platform and rules, elects a national chair and vice chair, and selects the party’s presidential nominee every 4 years. The state convention adopts a state platform and rules, elects a national committeeman and committeewoman, elects delegates to the national convention, elects the state chair and vice chair, and elects the district committeemen and committeewomen who make up the state executive committee. The county convention adopts the county platform and rules, and elects delegates to the state convention. The precinct convention adopts precinct resolutions and elects delegates to the county convention. As we spend more time on elections, you will begin to see the how the role of the parties has changed over the last two hundred years.

From the end of Reconstruction until the late 1970s, the Democratic Party dominated Texas politics. The Republican Party began to grow, however, following WWII with the increased size and prosperity of the middle and upper classes in Texas. electricity nightcore The first Republican official elected to a statewide office was John Tower, who was elected to the US Senate in 1961. The Republican base generally lies in urbanized, rapidly growing areas that contain lots of non-Texans. African Americans overwhelmingly vote Democratic. This has been true of Hispanics as well, although the latter may be changing.

primary process is the stage at which the members of a political party decide which candidate will represent the party in the general election. electricity outage chicago In other words, all Republicans will decide which one Republican gets to run for each office. Today, the primary process is usually, but not always, conducted through elections. Originally, most states used a primary caucus, a meeting of the party’s leadership. The leadership then decided which candidates would represent the party. Many states eventually used a more inclusive method, the primary convention. In a convention method, party members choose delegates to represent them at a convention. Those delegates then choose the party’s candidates at convention. A few states still use some variation of the caucus or convention method. q card gas station All states still use the convention to make party decisions. Too, this is how both major parties pick their party’s nominee for president.

Most states, however, have begun to use primary elections. Filing fees charged to the candidates pay for primary elections. These fees are subsidized by state funds. The administration of elections in Texas is the direct responsibility of the county. Primary elections have a number of characteristics that separate them from primary caucuses and conventions. Primary elections test a candidate’s popularity and his ability to organize early, but they do not test his ability to serve well if elected. Primary elections are lengthy. Only candidates who can afford to spend a lot of money and to not work are able to run for office. Primary elections have brought about an increased reliance on the media. Candidates who must reach not simply party leaders or convention delegates but the entire population from which they are being elected, have to turn to the media to get their message out. A candidate who is seeking statewide office in Texas is most likely to rely heavily on media advertising.

Primary elections have contributed to the rising importance of activists. 2015 electricity prices For better or worse, ideologically extreme voters turn out for primary elections in much higher numbers than other voters. That means that ideologically extreme candidates can win the primary, but they can’t win the general election. Or, if both parties offer ideologically extreme candidates in the general election, voters turn away from both candidates and from voting altogether. In the general population, conservatives support things such as the reduction or elimination of the graduated income tax, while liberals would support policies that protect women, gays and minorities. In the primaries, however, very extreme ideological positions are normal.

blanket, or free love, primary. This is an excellent primary for offering voters a wide range of choices – which is precisely why parties dislike them. For complete definitions of these primaries, refer to your text. The Texas primary election is classified as a closed primary where the voter signifies party membership by voting in the primary.

general election is held to determine which candidate will hold the office. Unlike primaries, which are controlled by each state, federal law governs general elections. That means that the general election is held in the same way on the same day throughout the country. The general election is held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Only a plurality (the most votes) is needed to win. That is why officeholders can be elected with only thirty-five percent of the votes, for example. It only takes one more vote to win a general election. (By contrast, in Texas you must get at least fifty percent of the vote (a simple majority) in order to win a primary election – thus often leading to primary runoffs.)