Grenfell tower – wikipedia j gastroenterology impact factor

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Grenfell Tower is a derelict 24-storey residential tower block in North Kensington in London, England, whose remains still stand following a severe fire in June 2017. The tower was completed in 1974, as part electricity definition chemistry of the first phase of the Lancaster West Estate. [1] The tower was named after Grenfell Road, which ran to the south of the building; the road itself was named after Field Marshal Lord Grenfell, a senior British Army officer. [2]

The building’s top 20 storeys consisted of 120 flats, with six per floor – two flats with one bedroom each and four flats with two bedrooms each – with a total of 200 bedrooms. Its first four storeys were non-residential until its most recent refurbishment, from 2015 to 2016, when two of them were converted to residential use, bringing it up to 127 flats and 227 bedrooms; six of the new flats had four bedrooms each and one flat had three bedrooms. It also received new windows and new cladding with thermal insulation during this refurbishment. [3]

Prior to a fire, which began in the early hours of 14 June 2017, the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and central UK government bodies knew, or ought to have known, that their management of the tower was breaching the rights to life, and to adequate housing, of the tower’s residents, according to a later enquiry by the government’s own equalities watchdog. [4] The fire caused severe damage to the building and killed 72 people, including a stillbirth. [5] In early 2018 it was announced 76 gas station locations that following demolition of the tower the site is likely to become a memorial to those killed in the fire. [6]

The tower was built to the Parker Morris standards. Each floor was 22m square, giving an approximate usable area of 476 square metres (5,120 sq ft). The layout of each floor was designed to be flexible as none of the partition walls were structural. The residential floors contained a two bedroom flat at each corner, in between which on the east and the west face was a one bedroomed flat. The core contained a stair column and the lift and service shafts. [10] One-bedroom flats were 51.4 m 2 (553 sq ft) in area and two-bedroom flats were 75.5 m 2 (813 sq ft). [9]

The original lead architect for the building, Nigel Whitbread, said in 2016 in an interview with Constantine Gras, which was later partially repeated in The Guardian, [12] that the tower had been designed with attention to strength, following the Ronan Point collapse of 1968, and from what I can see could last another 100 years. He described it as a very simple and straightforward concept. You have a central core containing the lift gas works park seattle, staircase and the vertical risers for the services and then you have external perimeter columns. The services are connected to the central boiler and pump which powered the whole development and this is located in the basement of the tower block. This basement is approximately four metres deep and in addition has two metres of concrete at its base. This foundation holds up the tower block and in situ concrete columns and slabs and pre-cast beams all tie the building together. [10] History [ edit ]

Construction, by contractors A E Symes, of Leyton, London, commenced in 1972, with the building being completed in 1974. Before construction the plans at basement level were changed from the original brief to accommodate the need for extra car-parking. In the early 1990s, access to the building was restricted through the use of key fobs, and gasset y ortega filosofia lift access to the first four storeys was discontinued. The building was renovated in 2015–16. [13]

When the building opened in 1974, it was nicknamed the ‘Moroccan Tower’ because many renters came from the local Moroccan immigrant community. [14] In recent years some residents had become leaseholders, mostly under the Right to Buy scheme; 14 flats in the tower, and three in Grenfell Walk, were leaseholder owned at the time of the fire. [15] Renovation [ edit ]

The renovation was part of a project to utilise the area around Lancaster Green. [16] A new leisure centre had already been built to the f gas certification logo east of the green, and the all-weather football pitches to the north of the tower were destined to become Kensington Academy. The renovation aimed to replace the substandard heating system, replace the windows, increase the thermal efficiency of the tower and improve appearance of the tower in the style of the academy. [13]

It aimed to reconfigure the podium levels in order to use the space more efficiently. The nursery would move from 244 m 2 (2,630 sq ft) on the mezzanine floor to 206 m 2 (2,220 sq ft) on the ground floor with immediate access to outside play space. The mezzanine floor would be continued across the full width of the building making space for three four-bedroom, 101.5 m 2 (1,093 sq ft) six person flats. The Dale Youth boxing club gained almost 100 m 2 (1,100 sq ft) extra space by moving from the ground floor to the walkway level (190 m 2 (2,000 sq ft) to 287 m 2 (3,090 sq ft)). Walkway + 1 level would be converted from offices, to four new four bedroom, 6 person flats. [13]

Plans by Studio E Architects for renovation of the tower were publicised in 2012. The £8.7 million refurbishment, undertaken by Rydon Ltd, of Forest Row, East Sussex in conjunction with Artelia for contract administration and Max gas x breastfeeding side effects Fordham as specialist mechanical and electrical consultants, was completed in 2016. As part of the project, in 2015–2016, the concrete structure received new windows and new aluminium composite rainscreen cladding, in part to improve the appearance of the building. [13]

Two types were used: Arconic’s Reynobond PE, which consists of two coil-coated aluminium sheets that are fusion bonded to both sides of a polyethylene core; and Reynolux aluminium sheets. Beneath these, and fixed to the outside of the walls of the flats, was Celotex RS5000 polyisocyanurate (PIR) thermal insulation. The work was carried out by Harley Facades of Crowborough, East Sussex, at a cost of £2.6 million. [17] Architect [ edit ]

Nigel Whitbread was lead architect for the Grenfell Tower. [18] In an interview with Constantine Gras, quoted in the Guardian, he said that he was born in Kenton, his parents had a grocers shop on St Helen’s Gardens, North Kensington. He was educated at Sloane Grammar school static electricity bill nye full episode and then got a position with the architects Douglas Stephen and Partners, who though small were applying the principles of Le Corbusier and the modernists. [18] He worked alongside Kenneth Frampton who was the Technical Editor of the journal Architectural Design; and Elia Zenghelis and Bob Maxwell. He moved to work for Clifford Wearden after the basic plan for Lancaster West Estate had been established. He later worked for 30 years until his retirement at Aukett Associates. [19] Around 2016 he became involved with local residents association drawing up the St Quintin and Woodlands Neighbourhood Plan. [20] This included the Imperial West site in Hammersmith and Fulham. [21] [22] Grenfell Action Group [ edit ]

• In 2013, the group published a 2012 fire risk assessment done by a TMO Health and Safety Officer which recorded safety concerns. Firefighting equipment at the tower had not been checked for up to four years; on-site fire extinguishers had expired, and some had the word condemned written on them because they were so old. GAG documented its attempts to contact KCTMO management; they also alerted the council Cabinet Member for electricity in indian villages Housing and Property but said they never received a reply from him or his deputy. [24]

• In January 2016, GAG warned that people might be trapped in the building if a fire broke out, pointing out that the building had only one entrance and exit, and corridors that were allowed to fill with rubbish, such as old mattresses. GAG published an online article attacking KCTMO as an evil, unprincipled, mini-mafia and accusing the council of ignoring health and safety laws. In the blog post, they warned that only a catastrophic event would expose the ineptitude and incompetence of [KCTMO] and bring an end to the dangerous living conditions and neglect of health and safety legislation at the building, adding, [We] predict that it won’t be long before the words of this blog come back to haunt the KCTMO management and we will do everything in our power to ensure that those in authority know how long and how appallingly our landlord has ignored their responsibility to ensure the health and safety of their tenants and leaseholders. They can’t say that they haven’t been warned national gas average 2012! [26] [9]