Heat hits wheat yields per field – zimbabwe star

LONDON, 28 November, 2016 – Farmers and consumers have just been issued another warning: global warming will almost certainly reduce wheat yields.

For every 1C rise in global average temperatures, the harvest per hectare of the grain that feeds more than half the planet will fall by an average of 5.7%.

This average conceals huge variation at local levels. Electricity bill nye worksheet At Aswan in Egypt, a 1C rise could reduce harvests by between 11% and 20%. Gas density of air At Krasnodar in Russia, productivity could fall by 4% or 7%.

Global demand for food is likely to rise by 60% by mid-century, as the world’s population soars to an estimated 9 billion. Gas laws And wheat is one of the staples that nourish the entire planet.

Although 195 nations voted at the Paris climate conference last December to take steps to contain global warming to 1.5C if possible, and 2C at most, little concerted action has yet been taken.

The wheat warning is not new: in effect, more than 60 scientists from more than 50 institutions worldwide report in Nature Climate Change that they have looked at the predictions. Electricity kwh They have tested them using three entirely independent approaches, and data from just one grain crop – and they get the same bleak answer about reduced yields.

International concern over food security has gone hand in hand with anxiety over potentially catastrophic climate change as a consequence of the combustion of fossil fuels and the rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

One research group has warned that extreme weather – predicted to increase with global warming – presents an inherent hazard to agriculture as drought, floods or simply a heatwave at the wrong moment in the growing season could devastate a crop.

Another study has looked directly at the evidence so far, and matched harvest data with regional temperatures, to find that yield per field in Europe is already being affected.

And a third group has looked not at food crops as such, but at the response of the grass family to climate change. Wd gaster cosplay tutorial As wheat, barley, oats, maize and rice are all grasses, developed by thousands of years of selective breeding to deliver maximum yields in the traditional farmlands, these are likely to be hit – and, once again, the poorest people and the subsistence farmers will be hit hardest.

But puzzles remain. Electricity wiki Although the outlook for harvests has been gloomy, the observed response of the vegetable world to temperature and climate changes so far has been ambiguous.

One observed outcome has been that as carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere creep upwards, many plant species have achieved more growth with less water. Gas cap code This is called the fertilisation effect, and it means that, overall, even the drylands that are home to 2 billion people have become perceptibly greener.

Other research has confirmed the observation, but warned that changing levels of evapotranspiration – the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth’s land and ocean surface to the atmosphere – from shrubs, trees and grasses could actually intensify future heatwaves.

So researchers from Nanjing Agricultural University in China and partners in India, Thailand, Australia, Canada, the US, Europe and the UK took a closer look.

They used three different statistical techniques, including one based on historical records, to model the future under a changing climate regime.

No assumptions were made that plant breeders would be able to adapt their crops in time, and the researchers made no allowance for the CO2 fertilisation effect. Gas utility They just looked at what would happen to harvests worldwide as temperatures edged upwards.

They based one approach on dividing the world into a geographical grid, with the climate and crop data for each region. Electricity bill cost per month The second looked at evidence from 30 individual field sites, worldwide, that could represent about two-thirds of the global wheat crop.

Then they studied what modellers call “statistical regressions” – based on global and country-level data for rice, sorghum, barley, soybean, maize and wheat – to see what that delivered.

They got more or less the same answer from all three approaches: that a 1C temperature increase would mean that global wheat yield would decline between 4.1% and 6.4%, with an average of 5.7%.

Warmer regions were most likely to experience the greatest decline in yield. Gaston y astrid lima China, India, the US and France would all experience much the same impact. Gas nozzle keeps stopping Russia – which grows wheat under cooler conditions – would be less affected.

The researchers conclude: “The consistent negative impact from increasing temperatures confirmed by three independent methods warrants critical needed investment in climate change adaptation strategies to counteract the adverse effects of rising temperatures on global wheat production, including genetic improvement and management adjustments.

“However, some or all of the negative global warming impacts on wheat yield might be compensated by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations under full irrigation and fertilisation.” – Climate News Network

Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire ,19 December 2016 (ECA) – “Regardless of the approach or transformative pathway chosen to change food systems and trade regimes, African countries need to undertake radical change in agricultural production systems, adopt agribusiness and promote regional agricultural value chains as a vein for regional integration.” The statement was made by Stephen Karingi, Director of the ECA’s Regional Integration and Trade Division this week in Cote d’Ivoire, at the opening of a symposium themed:Implementing Agro-Industrialization and Regional Value Chains for Africa’s Agricultural Transformation.

“Despite a handful of landmark political commitments, Africa is the only region in the world that has witnessed an increase in the number of food insecure people and has a mushrooming agricultural and food trade deficit,” said Karingi.

He noted that the food situation continues to worsen in real terms with the number of chronically food insecure reaching 229 million in 2016.”This is about 49 million more people at risk compared to 1990 – almost one of every four in Africa, excluding North Africa,” he said.

Karingi indicated that the progress in the levels of agricultural productivity has been uneven across countries, ranging from an increase of 325% in Nigeria to a decrease of about 40% in Zimbabwe and proposed that rethinking agricultural transformation would involve the adoption of a three-pronged approach that should systematically and comprehensively consider three essential elements: farming systems, agribusiness and regional value chains.

On efficient farming systems he said thatAfrica needs to produce more food and agricultural products through systems that can produce more with less finger print; that are resilient to climate variability and external shocks and that are more responsive to changing needs.

With regard to adopting an agribusiness growth strategy, he said it fits both the resource endowment of most African economies and the conditions surrounding the overwhelming majority of the poor who live in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihood.

“Agribusiness is substantially labor-intensive in terms of creating jobs and generating value added; in addition, it strengthens forward and backward linkages,” he said, adding: “This entails a paradigm shift from supply to a demand-driven market, in which the agribusiness value chain, covering farming production, processing and services and shifts the transitional focus from production to downstream stages of value chains.” He underscored the benefits of a sustained demand for agricultural products, stating that a vigorous agribusiness would fuel agricultural production and productivity.

On the third approach, Mr. Gas vs electric oven cost Karingi said that promoting regional agricultural value chains is a critical step towards creating incentives for meaningful private sector investment, allowing the full realization of competitiveness gains and intra-regional trade potential for African agriculture.

ECA has embarked, jointly with the AUC, on a process to develop aDraft Africa Policy Framework, Applications Platform and Guidelines for the Development and Promotion of Regional Agricultural Value Chains(RAVCs).The Policy Framework aims to provide principles, tools and guidelines for Regional Economic Communities and AU member states to guide policies and regulations that promote a viable sustainable agricultural development through fostering RAVCs. When was gas 99 cents in california The framework builds on the findings of 5 regional assessment studies, spanning over 16 African countries, of value chains of some of the most important strategic commodities. Gas leak los angeles california These studies, through a comprehensive approach, identified the potential and challenges for the development of regional value chains and underscored the need to develop a unified coordination and implementation arrangement.

The Symposium is jointly organized by the ECA, the Government of Cote D’Ivoire, African Union’s Trade and Industry Department and the African Development Bank.