Hellephant – page 13 – corvette forum digitalcorvettes.com corvette forums grade 9 electricity

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As has been pointed out, the problem is not with nuclear power. The answer quotes a study of cars in the US, not in the world, however. electricity and circuits class 6 questions So, rather than 60 or so large plants, it would be closer to 600 or 6,000, depending on the size of the plants and whether we account for the future needs of developing economies. Ultimately, it would technically be possible to build enough nuclear plants to provide the equivalent of all the energy used in land transportation (but land only–electric boats are, in almost all situations, a phenomenally bad idea for anything smaller than a warship large enough to have its own reactor). The problem is with electric vehicles. Electric cars are a luxury to placate the consciences of rich people in rich countries. They will never supplant combustion engines. There are several reasons for this.

Electric cars are phenomenally inefficient. I do not know of any studies, but the efficiency of a hybrid, from the Saudi oil well or Missouri soybean field to the muffler, is over 50% at the very, very least. a gas is a form of matter that Electric cars, though fairly efficient from the battery to the road, are really, really bad from the power plant to the battery, and usually not very good from the initial power source to the power plant. Roughly, 10% efficiency. Contrary to the claims of popular "engineers" and "technologists," a smart, superconducting grid operating at subzero temperatures and costing as much as a computer chip to manufacture per inch is not going to make electricity cheaper or more efficiently distributed.

Electric cars will never have the range and power of combustion. There is simply no safe way to store electrical or potential electrical energy in as dense a form as the chemical energy stored in combustible fuels. Outside of urban and suburban environments, electric cars will always be at a major disadvantage because of the ranges involved. The second issue is power. I will grant that there are some really high hp electric super cars out there. gas x coupon 2014 That, in itself, is not very impressive from an engineering standpoint. What those vehicles have a lot of is rpm. What they lack is readily available torque. The torque they do have is expensive in terms of the weight of the parts needed and ends up being directly tied to how much juice is left. Electric propeller driven drones make a lot of sense. Electric M1A2 Abrams tanks do not make much sense (I know the Porsche Tiger had electric motors. Those motors were powered by a 700 horsepower gasoline engine, not a pack of triple-A Duracells). mp electricity bill payment paschim kshetra Thus, while a lot of urban traffic could be practically converted to electric, some of the most important areas of transportation, and long range, heavy payload 18 wheeler trucks in particular, cannot be easily or realistically switched to electric.

There is not enough economically available lithium to run the world’s transportation needs. There is a lot of lithium, to be sure, and it is, mostly, in relatively available forms. Given current demand, there ought never be a shortage or major cost increase. However, the current supply is used primarily for batteries already. gas vs electric water heater cost per year To begin to cover the world’s needs, the production of lithium would have to be expanded by several orders of magnitude.

Electric cars are and will always be too expensive for the average person. All technologies reach a maturity point, after which improvement is incremental, costly, and involves trade-offs. Battery technology is a mature technology. There are no metals lighter than lithium, and we are rapidly approaching the theoretical limit of battery efficiency with lithium. We could try other metals, but they are all heavier, so there is not improvement there. Electric motors have been mature technology for decades. electricity kwh to unit converter Steam turbines used in power plants are a very mature technology. As such, there is very little room left for the orders of magnitude level improvements needed in electric cars needed to make them competitive with intern combustion. Even in Tesla’s fabled new economy series, a new battery pack (which is needed depressingly often) costs as much as a new Honda. The hundreds of millions of cars needed to satisfy the developing world will not be a type of car too expensive for the vast majority of the citizens of the world’s richest country.

The concept allows V2G vehicles to provide power to help balance loads by "valley filling" (charging at night when demand is low) and "peak shaving" (sending power back to the grid when demand is high, see duck curve). Peak load leveling can enable utilities new ways to provide regulation services (keeping voltage and frequency stable) and provide spinning reserves (meet sudden demands for power). In future development, it has been proposed that such use of electric vehicles could buffer renewable power sources such as wind power, for example, by storing excess energy produced during windy periods and providing it back to the grid during high load periods, thus effectively stabilizing the intermittency of wind power. Some see this application of vehicle-to-grid technology as a renewable energy approach that can penetrate the baseline electric market.

In 2015 the transportation energy use for cars in the US is 377 million gallons of gas per day. power outage houston reliant The total miles driven in a year based on 24.8 mpg comes to 3.4 x 10^12 miles per year. An electric car uses 34 KWHr to travel 100 miles so to replace all the gas with electricity would require 1.2 x 10^12 KWHr . A 1000 MWe nuclear power plant at 90% capacity factor produces 7.9 x 10^9 KWHr in a year. This would require about 150 nuclear power plants for 100% or 75 power plants to replace the gasoline used to power 1/2 of the cars.