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At this point, an empty PostgreSQL database is provisioned. To populate it with data from an existing data source, see the import instructions or follow the language-specific instructions in this article to connect from your application. Understanding Heroku Postgres plans

The PostgreSQL project stops supporting a major version five years after its initial release. Heroku Postgres ensures that no databases run on a major version that is not supported by the PostgreSQL project. You can no longer provision a particular PostgreSQL version about 6 to 9 months before that version’s end of life (forks and followers of existing databases are still allowed).

When support ends for a given PostgreSQL version or legacy infrastructure, Heroku provides notification at least 3 months in advance. Databases and infrastructure are automatically migrated to the latest version when support ends. This automatic migration requires database and application downtime. Heroku highly recommends that you perform the version upgrade or update prior to support ending, so that you can test compatibility, plan for unforeseen issues, and migrate your database on your own schedule. Performance analytics

The leading cause of poor database performance is unoptimized queries. The list of your most expensive queries, available through data.heroku.com, helps to identify and understand the queries that take the most time in your database. Full documentation is available here. Logging

Each Postgres connection requires memory, and database plans have a limit on the number of connections they can accept. If you are using too many connections, consider using a connection pooler such as PgBouncer or migrating to a larger plan with more RAM. Checks: Long Running Queries, Idle in Transaction

Long-running queries and transactions can cause problems with bloat that prevent auto vacuuming and cause followers to lag behind. They also create locks on your data, which can prevent other transactions from running. Consider killing long-running queries with pg:kill. Check: Indexes

Low Scans, High Writes indexes are used, but infrequently relative to their write volume. Indexes are updated on every write, so are especially costly on a high write table. Consider the cost of slower writes against the performance improvements that these indexes provide.

Seldom used Large Indexes are not used often and take up significant space both on disk and in cache (RAM). These indexes may still be important to your application, for example, if they are used by periodic jobs or infrequent traffic patterns.

Because Postgres uses MVCC old versions of updated or deleted rows are simply made invisible rather than modified in place. Under normal operation an auto vacuum process goes through and asynchronously cleans these up. However sometimes it cannot work fast enough or otherwise cannot prevent some tables from becoming bloated. High bloat can slow down queries, waste space, and even increase load as the database spends more time looking through dead rows.

This checks the overall index hit rate, the overall cache hit rate, and the individual index hit rate per table. It is very important to keep hit rates in the 99+% range. Databases with lower hit rates perform significantly worse as they have to hit disk instead of reading from memory. Consider migrating to a larger plan for low cache hit rates, and adding appropriate indexes for low index hit rates. Check: Blocking Queries

Some queries can take locks that block other queries from running. Normally these locks are acquired and released very quickly and do not cause any issues. In pathological situations however some queries can take locks that cause significant problems if held too long. You may want to consider killing the query with pg:kill. Check: Load

There are many, many reasons that load can be high on a database: bloat, CPU intensive queries, index building, and simply too much activity on the database. Review your access patterns, and consider migrating to a larger plan which would have a more powerful processor. Check: Sequences

This looks at 32bit integer (aka int4) columns that have associated sequences, and reports on those that are getting close to the maximum value for 32bit ints. You should migrate these columns to 64bit bigint (aka int8) columns to avoid overflow. An example of such a migration is alter table products alter column id type bigint;.

This command takes the local database mylocaldb and pushes it to the database at DATABASE_URL on the app sushi. To prevent accidental data overwrites and loss, the remote database must be empty. You will be prompted to pg:reset a remote database that is not empty.

These commands rely on the pg_dump and pg_restore binaries that are included in a Postgres installation. It is somewhat common, however, for the wrong binaries to be loaded in $PATH. Errors such as ! createdb: could not connect to database postgres: could not connect to server: No such file or directory

are both often a result of this incorrect $PATH problem. This problem is especially common with Postgres.app users, as the post-install step of adding /Applications/Postgres.app/Contents/MacOS/bin to $PATH is easy to forget. pg:ps, pg:kill, pg:killall

The procpid column can then be used to cancel or terminate those queries with pg:kill. Without any arguments pg_cancel_backend is called on the query which will attempt to cancel the query. In some situations that can fail, in which case the –force option can be used to issue pg_terminate_backend which drops the entire connection for that query. $ heroku pg:kill 31912

In setups where more than one database is provisioned (common use-cases include a master/slave high-availability setup or as part of the database upgrade process) it is often necessary to promote an auxiliary database to the primary role. This is accomplished with the heroku pg:promote command. $ heroku pg:promote HEROKU_POSTGRESQL_GRAY_URL

pg:promote works by setting the value of the DATABASE_URL config var (which your application uses to connect to the primary database) to the newly promoted database’s URL and restarting your app. The old primary database location is still accessible via its HEROKU_POSTGRESQL_COLOR_URL setting.

All Heroku Postgres databases created on the Common Runtime have required the use of SSL since April 2016. From March 2018, we will be scheduling maintenances to move all databases out of our Legacy infrastructure to infrastructure that enforces the use of SSL for database connections. In February 2018, we will be running brownouts enforcing SSL temporarily: for more details see our article on brownouts.

Most clients will connect over SSL by default, but on occasion it is necessary to set the sslmode=require parameter on a Postgres connection. Please add this parameter in code rather than editing the config var directly. Please check you are enforcing use of SSL especially if you are using Java or Node.js clients. Connecting in Java

There are a variety of ways to create a connection to a Heroku Postgres database, depending on the Java framework in use. In most cases, the environment variable JDBC_DATABASE_URL can be used directly as described in the article Connecting to Relational Databases on Heroku with Java. Here is an example: private static Connection getConnection() throws URISyntaxException, SQLException {

By default, Heroku will attempt to enable SSL for the PostgreSQL JDBC driver by setting the property sslmode=require globally. However, if you are building the JDBC URL yourself (such as by parsing the DATABASE_URL) then we recommend explicitly adding this parameter.