History of electric cars electricity nightcore


1880 – January 17th: Thomas Alva Edison is awarded a carbon-filament vacuum tube light bulb patent. This incandescent light becomes popular over the next three decades as the lamps become more affordable. The commercial generation and distribution of electricity for lighting, and light rail, built the necessary infrastructure for electric cars. Edison had to fight for clear patent rights, and eventually the strongest plaintiffs merged to become General Electric.

1895 – Morris & Salom come up with an elegant new design, which they call the Electrobat II. electricity names superheroes It is lighter weight and has front wheel drive with coil spring suspension at the rear wheels. Along with the Morrison electric it is entered in America’s first automobile race, which is held in Chicago. Neither car has the battery capacity to go the distance in the freezing weather, and the race is won by the Duryea brothers, followed by some German Benz based cars.

1896 – The same Electrobat II, and a new electric built by Andrew Riker, soundly defeat five next generation Duryeas in a series of five mile sprints on a dirt horse-track in fair weather. The short range allows for a light, hot battery. Because of the high initial cost and vicissitudes of lead battery management Morris and Salom felt the vehicles are more appropriate for fleet service than individual ownership, and design an electric version of the popular horse drawn Hansom cabs for the streets of major American cities.

Venture capital for the Electrobat projects came from owners of the Electric Storage Battery Company of Philadelphia under the leadership of Isaac L. Rice. ESB is founded to provide battery sets for streetcars where a trolley line is not practical, to extend service past the reach of electrical lines, and where overhead wires are restricted by ordinance. They are also used for power station backup, railway lighting, and such.

May 13th A Columbia Mark III, the first electric car for sale to the general public, is demonstrated to the press and public. Made by a subsidiary of Albert A. Pope’s bicycle empire the company has a significant advantage over the Morris & Salom New York cab startup as they had a factory for manufacturing the chassis and running gear, the bodies are farmed out to the New Haven Carriage Co.

Although a Bersey cab prototype has been around since 1893 it takes several years to find the capital and change laws to put them on the streets of London. On August 19th, 1897 Walter Bersey’s cab is finally put into service. The Bersey cabs use a 3 ½ HP Lundell motor, ran at 9 miles per hour for about 20-30 miles on a charge, and feature quick-change battery boxes. The enterprise failed in August of 1899. Painted yellow and black they were popularly called “hummingbirds” due to the bright color and whir of the straight cut gears.

The Electric Vehicle Company has a lot of flash equity, mostly as stock shares, to spread around in support of anticipated growth. gas tax in texas The Electric Carriage and Wagon, Columbia Motor-Carriage, New Haven Carriage, Riker Electric Vehicle, and Siemens-Halske (North America) companies, are folded into the Electric Vehicle Company, now controlled by a New York/Philadelphia transit holding company known as the “lead cab trust”. EVC provides vehicles for the New York City and other taxi companies; the closely tied Electric Storage Battery Company (later ESB Exide) supplied the batteries. In many cases these buyouts are stock swaps where a majority owner of the original company became a minority owner of the briefly inflated conglomerate. The game of the holding company is industry sector monopolies based on patent consolidation and exclusive franchises.

1919 – Only Detroit Electric, Milburn, and Rauch & Lang survive World War II, the Influenza pandemic, and the postwar recession. Production slowed to a trickle. Electric starting and lighting systems, combined with much more reliable gasoline engines, and better sliding gear transmissions, made the advantages of electric cars less significant.

From the dawn of motor vehicles the hybrid concept made sense as it took advantage of the low speed torque and easy control of electric traction motors, along with the compact energy storage of petroleum. In a lightweight motorcar a clutch and several different gear ratios made a gasoline engine workable. With a heavy truck or a locomotive, clutches are a problem, they have to be large and require a lot of pressure to keep from burning out. Because of this, early trucks and busses were often electric or series hybrid vehicles.

In a pure series hybrid the engine could turn at the speed of optimum efficiency as it is directly coupled to a dynamo, which is connected through a controller to one or more drive motors. A battery is used for starting and lighting, as with most gasoline cars after 1912, or a larger battery can store energy to make the most of a smaller engine by adding power where useful.

A parallel hybrid can drive the wheels from two or more energy sources at the same time, typically through the same drive train. gas vs electric oven running cost The goal with parallel systems is fuel economy and performance, the balance between the two depending on design priorities. In practice, the engine or a regenerative braking mode can recharge the battery for convenience and efficiency. A separate dynamo, a second field winding, or switching the motor to behave as a generator, can provide regenerative braking. Where mains power is available and cost effective, a plug-in charging option can save a lot of money. With an engine-dominated system the electric component serves the purpose of a supercharger – it gives additional peak power allowing for a smaller more efficient engine. An electric-dominated system uses the electric motor as the main drive unit; with a relatively small engine that fires up for full power, extended range, or to charge the battery.

Woods is one of the premier American electric car companies, along with Columbia, Baker, and Waverley; they have electric cars for sale in 1898. Other than a prototype series-hybrid truck in 1899 they are not known for innovation, being one of the last to give up solid rubber tires and chain drive. 9game Shortly after Columbia, Electrobat, and Riker are swept up into the lead cab bubble on the East Coast, a large group of wealthy investors tried the same gambit with Woods in Chicago. The cab bubble burst in short order and Woods became an electric car company again, under a series of new owners.

The Woods Company’s final act is a hybrid designed by Roland S. Fend in 1914-15, and manufactured from 1916 until late 1918. This is the most successful parallel-hybrid of the twentieth century, having the advantage of no significant competition. The initial version is called the model 44 Dual Power Coupé. It is a 4-Passenger car with a 14 HP 4-cylinder le Roi engine coupled through an electro-magnetic clutch to a 48 Volt 20 HP motor connected to a 24-cell battery about half the size and weight of a typical electric car battery. The car could run on both motors separately or together. When running at speed on the gasoline motor alone, the field windings were shunted and the electric motor became a dynamo, recharging the battery. There is no plug-in option but regenerative braking is employed when the brake pedal is partially depressed. gas engine efficiency The first iteration has a 110” wheelbase and is rated at 20 MPH electric only and 35 MPH on both. They claim the car can get 48 mpg, the base price is $2,650; wire wheels add $25, available in blue or green, custom colors add $100.

It gets a larger body, a more powerful Continental engine, and a 124-inch wheelbase. New amenities include an adjustable rain-shield (this is before the windshield wiper), better lighting, and a rearview mirror that runs across the top of the windshield. All control is by two small levers on the steering hub and a single foot pedal. Now priced at $2,950 with wood wheels.

Justus B. Entz patented the design, and the Pope Manufacturing Co in Hartford Connecticut built a prototype in 1898 as the Columbia Mk IX. In 1907 Entz was a Vice President of the Electric Vehicle Co, which then owned Columbia, and Columbia briefly makes a production model called the Mk MXLVI, sold in 1908. EVC/Columbia is sold to new owners and stopped production of electric vehicles in 1909.

In 1914 Entz, still seeing no royalties, talked Raymond Owen into licensing the rights, and he made the cars in New York for a couple of years. In December 1915 the recently merged Baker Rauch & Lang Company buys out Owen and makes him a VP of sales. General Electric is interested in the concept and invests two million dollars in the company. GE manufactures the electrical components at their Fort Wayne Indiana factory. The cars are built in Cleveland at the Edgewater Park Baker factory, most with Rauch & Lang Bodies.

In all but the top speed position, the car functions as a series-hybrid. As it is never propelled from the small 24-volt starting/lighting battery, or any other secondary energy source, it is not a strictly defined hybrid as all motive power is from the gasoline engine. These same components, with a larger battery, could have worked as a series-parallel-hybrid, but that would involve a lot more weight and complications for a bit of fuel economy.

Rather than using a clutch and various gear ratios, the crankshaft is bolted directly to the spinning field coil frame of a dynamo with the armature connected to the driveshaft. By switching circuit wiring the rpm of the two components could slip, or lock up: transferring 93% of the engine’s power to the driveshaft. Any slippage between the field and armature causes the unit to behave as a dynamo and generate current, which is delivered to an electric motor in the same case just behind the dynamo. electricity dance moms full episode When the car is static, torque is delivered to the drive wheels from the electric motor. Between the first speed and the sixth the system varied energy transmission from that of a (nearly) pure series hybrid to a pure gasoline car with a magnetic clutch. The car features dynamic braking, but it dumped the current as heat and is not regenerative.