Hopkins paper of dreams and swords gas dryer vs electric dryer


Although Gerard Manley Hopkins lived and wrote during the mid to late Victorian era, when we think of Victorian poets he isn’t what immediately comes to mind. Partly this could well be because none of his work was published till after his death. It could also be because his surviving poems are not like his contemporaries’. One important difference of Hopkins is not only his distinct style but what he writes about (very Anglo-Saxon subjects, accounting for difference in time periods), which is not quite what his contemporaries were writing about nor how they were writing about them. It is possible, given his initial determination to stop writing after converting to Roman Catholicism, that he didn’t read a lot of contemporary poetry for fear it would tempt him into writing. Not only is the way Hopkins writes a good ‘update’ of Anglo-Saxon verse, but the topics he chooses he treats similarly to A-S ideas. electricity and magnetism ppt For the sake of simplicity, when I speak of “English” or “Anglo-Saxon” words, I include both words with Old English roots and words taken directly from that language. The same goes for “French”, including both words of French derivation and literal French words.

Hopkins’ style is probably the most well-known thing about his poetry. He is known for inventing sprung rhythm, which is very similar to the rhythm of alliterating Old English poetry, and he claimed that to have been his model for it (see Norton Anthology, 1547). “The Windhover”, one of his most famous poems, is a good example of his plentiful use of alliteration: “I caught this morning’s minion, king-/dom of daylight’s dauphin, dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon, in his riding. . .” (Norton Anthology, 1550). An Anglo-Saxon audience would have appreciated and enjoyed the alliteration, without stumbling over it quite as much as our modern tongues tend to do. electricity for refrigeration heating and air conditioning answer key Hopkins, in a letter to Robert Brides about his sprung rhythm, said, “My verse is less to be read than heard. . . it is oratorical, that the rhythm is so” (Hopkins, qted in Walker Gibson, “Sound and Sense in G. M. Hopkins”). His most obvious diversion from his Anglo-Saxon model is that his lines rhyme, but that is a part of making is poetry palatable to a Victorian mind. Even if he wrote privately and not for an outside audience, he would still have stayed somewhat within the definition of the essence of poetry, which at the time would very likely have included rhyme either officially or in practice.

He has caused trouble for some students in his intentionally picking out obscure Anglo-Saxon words like “silion” or “wimpling”, but he has not gone so far as to use only English words. If he were, he would not be able to say dauphin or chevalier , to take two obvious examples. m gasol Old English had no use for such soft sounds or excess vowels; dauphin would have appeared as something like “deofan”, which may sound similar but looks and feels very different. This is a small thing to note, but still important, because it changes the flavour of his poetry: it’s not quite as fossilized as straight Old English, rather, acceptable to a modern audience and mainly understandable. t gas terengganu This is part of what I mean by his “updating” the style of Anglo-Saxon poetry, still keeping the essence of it as much as you can while writing in Modern English, but making it able to survive, or be revived. Perhaps some people consciously appreciate his judicious choice of French over English words or vice versa, though I think it’s the minority of his readers who stop to examine the roots of his vocabulary. But the words a writer chooses are important, especially in poetry. And sometimes, as strange as it sounds, whether it was the descendant of a Norseman in the 12th century who coined the term, or the descendant of a Germanic clan in the 7th, can be the most important criterion for choosing a word to get the right tone or feel across.

To take a single example, the first half of the ninth line of “The Windhover”: “Brute beauty and valour and act”. James Brophy, in a short article in Modern Language Notes on “The Windhover”, says we get the word brute from Brutus, who supposedly founded Britain. Brute , then, has an older sense much different from that in which we use the word today. “Layamon tells us, for example, that in ‘Brutland’ ‘ƿer wes moni god Brut,’ where ‘Brut’ is a synonym for knight” (Brophy, 674). Layamon is a bit late for the Anglo-Saxon era, but consider the origin of our word knight : cnecht , in Old English, with all the connotations of that word. It is interesting to compare them to the connotations of the similar word chevalier , which Hopkins also uses in the same poem. ortega y gasset obras completas Brophy goes on to say that “The beauty of Hopkins’ falcon, then, if the linguistically erudite poet did intend this medieval nuance, is not simply wild or savage but also princely”, and calls the phrase “Brute beauty”, which alliterates, a kenning (Brophy, 674).

The other important way Hopkins’ poetry is similar to Anglo-Saxon literature is in the subjects and his treatments of them. gas emoji The majority of Anglo-Saxon poetry is heroic in one way or another, though the many surviving riddles give us a good picture of the way the English viewed everyday objects. We may talk sentimentally about simpler, happier times and all that, but despite the omnipresence of war and death during the Anglo-Saxon era, life then was not without joy. Though the pagan worldview of the early English was inclined more to a sort of Stoic philosophy, accepting your wyrd and dying bravely, the conversion of the English gave their worldview more hope both for this life and the end of life (for example, because now death in battle wasn’t your best chance at a good afterlife, women had more to look forward to).

Here I run into a bit of a problem. I don’t have one good source to cite for this idea. I only have a year and a half of researching everything to do with the Anglo-Saxon era, at both ends. One result of all this research is an idea, hard to put into words, of the Anglo-Saxon atmosphere. electricity was invented Hopkins’ joy in the kestrel, his martial images, strike a chord very similar to that, something I can’t yet say much better than that it has the Anglo-Saxon “feel”. Or, again, his description in “Pied Beauty” of the “Landscape plotted and pierced — fold, fallow, and plough; / And all trades, their gear and tackle and trim” (lines 5-6), makes sense when you consider that during a large part of the Anglo-Saxon era, most of the population either farmed or did skilled labour of some sort with their hands. Further, in “Hurrahing in Harvest”, speaking of a time of year most of us would call fall or autumn, he says, “Summer ends now” (line 1). The Anglo-Saxon year had two seasons, summer and winter, so, for example, “Sumer Is I-Cumen In” is a song about spring. Though in other poems Hopkins distinguishes between spring, summer, fall, and winter, I take it as significant that in one case, at least, he seems to have taken the much older English view of the seasons. His comparison of a diving falcon to a plough-blade in “The Windhover” has been the source of much confusion for readers, but for a detailed and thorough explanation of it, from which I couldn’t pick out a certain single part because the whole hangs so together, see Frederick L. Gwynn’s article “Hopkins’ ‘The Windhover’: A New Simplification”. gas zauberberg 1 He does not mention explicitly the Anglo-Saxon way of looking at things in Hopkins’ work, but the facts and theories he mentions, about the agricultural metaphors which would have come easily to mind for the majority of an Anglo-Saxon audience, are worthy proof for my own side, could I but quote the entire article.

Though none of Hopkins’ poems were handed down by oral tradition, which would be a truly magnificent way of continuing the legacy of Anglo-Saxon verse which he tried to revive, the fact that none of his work came to light until after his death is still somewhat analogous to the fates of those anonymous or unknown poets who bore the seed of such lasting works as Beowulf , The Wanderer , or Andreas . We have already seen many significant similarities between his writings and works from the Anglo-Saxon era, and how he managed to bring the style forward, into an age which speaks Modern English, without losing the essence of it.