How climate change mitigation and energy choices affect water – upi. com

California is in the midst of one of the most severe droughts on record, which has brought water to the forefront of our attention. 1 unit electricity cost in andhra pradesh While agriculture receives most of the press when it comes to water usage, California is an energy-producing powerhouse, and that energy production requires access to a reliable water supply.

California ranks third in the nation in both crude oil production and refining capacity. Electricity images cartoon It’s fourth in net electricity generation, fourth in conventional hydropower generation, and first in terms of solar and geothermal energy production. Electricity cost calculator These activities help secure an abundant and reliable energy supply, but at the expense of tens of billions of gallons of freshwater consumption per year.

There is an unfortunate irony here: While the energy sector affects climate by releasing heat-trapping gases, climate can also affect the reliability of energy production through changes in the timing and availability of the water supply. 2015 electricity prices Hydropower is the obvious example, but it isn’t the only source of energy affected by climate. Electricity multiple choice questions grade 9 When water-cooled power plants, representing nearly 90 percent of total U.S. Electricity for beginners power generation, have too little water, too much water, or too hot water, they have to curtail operation. Gas stoichiometry problems Water is a growing concern to oil and natural gas producers, too. Electricity physics khan academy Heat also exacerbates climate impacts by reducing the efficiency of thermal power generators, combustion engines and even the operation of solar photovoltaic panels.

There are dozens of examples of how drought and hot temperatures have undermined energy production. Gas house eggs In 2006, nuclear power plants across Europe were curtailed when rivers became too hot to safely cool reactors. Electricity projects for grade 7 In 2012, the largest blackout in history occurred in India, as the country’s hydropower resources faced record low levels due to drought at the same time demand hit record highs.

Closer to home, in 2014, California’s Independent System Operator reported that three of the state’s thermal power plants were at risk of having water supply curtailments because of the drought. Gas nozzle stuck in car Over the past two decades, hydropower contributed an average of 17 percent of California’s total in-state power generation; in 2014 and 2015, hydropower generation represented just under 8 percent. World j gastrointestinal oncol impact factor Lost hydropower during the recent drought has been met by increases in natural gas generation, which has resulted in more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

Luckily there are some win-wins for climate change mitigation and water conservation strategies. 3 gases in the atmosphere Electricity generated via wind turbines and solar PV panels require virtually no water. Electricity for refrigeration heating and air conditioning answer key Ten years ago these sources contributed only 2 percent of California’s total in-state generation. V gashi kenga e zagrebit In 2015, they represented nearly 13 percent of the state’s generation. Grade 9 electricity quiz Energy efficiency is also a huge win for water conservation, since a unit of saved energy also saves the water embedded in the production, conversion and transportation of that energy resource. Electricity terms and definitions Shifts towards water-lean renewables and energy efficiency in recent years have helped to decouple the dependence of the state’s power sector on water sources, making us less vulnerable to the drought-induced disruptions that are plaguing power systems around the world.

There are also some potential win-loses for climate and water that we must remain cognizant of. Electricity jeopardy game Some emissions-free sources of energy, such as concentrating solar power, geothermal and nuclear power plants, require large amounts of cooling water. Electricity usage by appliance Installing carbon capture and sequestration and other advanced pollution control systems to power plants often requires auxiliary systems that can significantly increase the water requirements of power generation. Gas nozzle prank Similarly, some alternative transportation fuels, such as hydrogen and biofuels that require irrigation, can reduce dependence on petroleum, but at the expense of water resources.

Some of our drought measures can also undermine our climate change mitigation efforts. Electricity load shedding Many of California’s power plants have switched to dry cooling, which saves water at the expense of efficiency penalties. Gas efficient suv 2015 A dry-cooled fossil-fueled power plant will generally emit more greenhouse gases than the same plant operating with a wet-cooling system, since water is a more efficient cooling fluid than air moved with fans. Electricity generation by state “Drought-proof” but energy-intensive, water supply options such as seawater desalination can increase the carbon intensity of producing drinking water. Electricity 101 presentation Thus, we must be mindful of the water intensity of our energy supplies, as well as the energy intensity of our water supplies, as we address drought and climate change.

These trends point to the tight tension between energy production, water consumption and consequently climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Electricity year invented Climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts will change the face of our energy systems locally, nationally and globally. Gas 85 We should use this opportunity to not only reduce our energy systems’ impact on climate but to also reduce climate’s impact on our energy systems.

Kelly Twomey Sanders is an assistant professor at the University of Southern California.This article originally appeared on Water Deeply, and you can find the original here. Electricity and magnetism connect to form For important news about the California drought, you can sign up to the Water Deeply email list.