How does human memory work – quora gas dryer vs electric dryer hookups


A single presynaptic impulse releases glutamate into the cleft, where it binds to AMPA and NMDA receptors in the postsynaptic membrane ( see above image). The AMPA receptor cation channels open and the ensuing entry of Na+ ions produce an excitatory post-synaptic potential ( EPSP). But each NMDA receptor channel remains blocked by a Mg2+ ion within the channel.

A train of presynaptic impulses cause a prolonged and enlarged depolarization of the postsynaptic cell by temporal summation. The enhanced depolarization drives the Mg2+ ions out of the NMDA channels and this unblocking allows Ca2+ to enter the postsynaptic cell.

Activation of these enzymes alters the phosphorylation of key membrane proteins, including AMPA receptors, and there is evidence that these steps lead to LTP. There are three elements in the development of LTP at these synapses, all of which have origins in the postsynaptic cells. These elements are:

When a CA1 neuron is excited by an impulse train at low frequency stimulation ( LFS; about 1 impulse/second) train of impulses passing along the Schaffer collateral axons of a CA3 neuron, the excitatory synapse undergoes a large persistent fall in synaptic efficiency – long-term depression (LTD). Thus, the same synapses that show LTP when stimulated intensely (with a high-frequency) can also show LTD when stimulated weakly by CA3 neurons.

The activation of NMDA receptors is a prerequisite for both LTP and LTD. The crucial difference (between whether it’s LTP or LTD) is the different rises in intracellular Ca2+ concentration produced by intense (high-frequency –> LTP) or weak (low-frequency –> LTD) stimulation of the axons of CA3 neurons.

High-frequency stimulation (HFS) induces a rise of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration to > 5µM in the CA1 neuron. This rise is sufficient to activate the two kinases mentioned previously ( protein kinase C and calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II). Those kinases now alter the phosphorylation of key proteins leading to LTP.

On the other hand, low-frequency stimulation (LFS) induces a relatively small rise in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration to < 1µM. At those low levels, different enzymes ( protein phosphatase — which do the exact opposite of kinases by remove phosphate groups) are activated. These enzymes cause dephosphorylation of proteins, including AMPA receptors. Evidently, the dephosphorylation steps induce internalization of AMPA receptors. This reduction causes a persistent fall in the sensitivity of the CA1 neuron to glutamate, thus depressing the size of the EPSPs and endowing the synapse with LTD.

This is the subject of a book, not a quora question. Surprisingly, it isn’t very worthwhile information without knowing how thinking works, and that is an even bigger subject. Any half dozen well educated people could write an entire page and all be true, yet look completely different from each other. It is the nature of something extremely complex to require an extensive background, new glossary of terms, and overlapping explanations, some of which are solid theory but subject to further revision. The one thing it does not do is lend itself to oversimplification of metaphor and allegory, as is so frequently done in the world of religion and pop psychology. Comparisons to computers, storage, and programming is also a very dangerous path on the road to misunderstanding.

The most we know about the brain is from the study of neurons, nerves, and muscles, so a very solid base of chemistry and biology is needed to begin the study. Once you know enough about the mechanics of the brain at the cellular level, you need to study it somewhat using the black box method: change the inputs, measure the outputs, and guess as to what happened in the box. I had a coworker that did this with 10,000 page cobol programs rather than read the source code, and it drove me crazy, but this is a valid method when it comes to studying systems at the nanolevel. Once you form valid hypothesis, you confirm them by studying functional MRI’s, using visual or auditory stimulus, and sadly, sometimes using deliberate and nondeliberate damage to live brain cells, (chemicals, electricity, radiation, magnetic fields).

Memory occurs at such a minute level, it might as well be the atomic level, for our ability to grasp it. Each sensation moment is recorded hundreds of times in multiple, interlinked or cross-referenced locatons, using an internally created language comprised of mesenger RNA componenents. It occurs at such a fast speed, that if it were possible to slow it down to one ten thousandth of actual speed, the typical person would still not truly be aware of his/her thoughts and be able to sense their motivations or beliefs behind their conscious thoughts. For this, we need to add another layer of knowledge, psychology. And not just the laymen’s understanding of abnormal behavior or the sociological aspects of therapy, but the understanding of the formation of the primary filter of consciousness, the ego. The access to memory, storage and selective filtering occurs simultaneous with our awareness of what we are wanting to see, hear, recall, feel, react, and what we "think we think" is not what is really happening, for there are entire thought packets, consisting of many multiple steps of memory access, applied logic (or deliberately applied non-logic), that occur far too fast and automatically for us to be aware of what is going on.

Being able to remember the exact sequence of events, cause and effect, is vital to our survival (along with everything else with a central nervous system). Therefore, every bit of memory must have a sequence code. If you are not conscious aware of something, then it cannot have a sequence code, and cannot be stored in long term memory.

If you are asking, how do we make use of it?: Everything with a central nervous system must be able to cope with an ever changing world. They must be able to make predictions, in order to make choices. Memory alone won’t do. They must be able to manipulate the data.

Google "neurons share data". These several links explain how the brain translates all sense data into a single experience in time. Since memory is already in bits, I can think of no better method for creating thoughts (neurons sharing data). Think of memory bits as Lego Toy pieces. The brain mixes and matches bits of data, to create thoughts, ideas, decisions, and everything ever imagined.

How does the brain evaluate everything in the world, in order to make choices? Emotional values. They dictate everything we remember. These values are constantly changing, according to a combination of our genes, knowledge, environment, our physical and mental state, and a hundred other factors.

Nobody knows. This much can be known. Every time you remember an event it is totally recreated (this has been proven by lab experiments). My own suggestion is the likeliest way that is done is by a trigger event. In other words there is no memory of an event only the ability to recreate what occurred or actually what you thot occurred that will change thru time to probably some arch type of experience that has personal meaning to you.

Anyone that says the brain chemically stores memories or in any way a materialist manner is stupid. The only person I know that has made any suggestion as to where trigger events are stored is Bruce Lipton who suggested the boundary of a cell in his book “The Biology of Belief”.

The establishments disbelief in consciousness and its denial of obvious charge in the dynamics of the cosmos are related. A universe that is totally interconnected together by cosmic charge would be the basis of how the interconnectedness of the universe and consciousness works. Denying cosmic charge denies consciousness.