How media smuggling took hold in north korea _ pbs newshour

A woman and her daughter their respects at statues of North Korea founder Kim Il Sung, left, and late leader Kim Jong Il in Pyongyang, North Korea, on Oct. Q gastrobar 11, 2015. Gas city indiana zip code Photo by Damir Sagolj/File Photo/Reuters

Since the mid-20th century, tens of thousands of North Koreans have fled their country amid food shortages and a tight government rule, risking death if they are caught.

In recent years, some of these defectors, who now live in South Korea, have sought to undermine the grip of the Kim regime on North Korean citizens. E85 gas stations in iowa They transfer media, including American movies and TV shows, to USB drives and smuggle them to North Korea, where they are passed around to citizens who have no access to the internet or any information outside the country.

Jieun Baek, a Ph.D candidate at Oxford University who has conducted research on North Korea, spoke with NewsHour Weekend Special Correspondent Karla Murthy about the effects of this information inside North Korea’s borders. Gas x chewables reviews An excerpt of their conversation is below.

The North Korean information landscape as it stands today is sort of a longtime evolution of what has been happening since the ’90s. Gas in michigan And the mid-’90s is a really important marker for North Korean modern history because that’s when the big famine hit. Electricity sources The government called it the Arduous March, but it’s essentially the biggest tragedy that happened in North Korea, resulting in the deaths of 1 to 2 million people.

With this incredibly awful period, market activity, mostly illegal, sprang up naturally because people had to depend on themselves and each other to survive [instead of] the public distribution system implemented by the government. Electricity transmission efficiency And so with that increase in market activity and the proliferation of goods being sent in from outside, mainly China, information naturally flowed in from the outside world. Gas efficient cars 2010 “There’s a very strong tension between the reality that the government is trying to impose on its citizens and the reality that actually does exist among its citizens today.”

Increasingly, people inside North Korea started to realize that there is a world outside of their country that was very different from what they were taught by the government. Gas gas And so this demand for foreign information — initially having to do with media, dramas, movies – -grew very rapidly.

And it’s been evolving since then. Electricity bill cost per unit What’s been evolving is the type of media being in demand, the methods of how it’s been smuggled in, [the] methods of information being smuggled out of North Korea, as well as who is involved, how money’s exchanged in this very demand-based phenomenon, and mostly important in my opinion: the irreversible changes that are taking place in this country due to this unprecedented access to foreign information that the citizens been exposed to thus far.

So the government, like most former dictatorships, attempted to have complete control over its citizens. Electricity merit badge requirements Attempted to seal off its population from the outside world in order to propagate their fabricated history and their version of current events.

But inevitably, like any other government, the people are smarter than the government. Gas definition And they started to realize that there are ways to access information that the government did not permit. Electric utility companies in florida And so there’s a very strong tension between the reality that the government is trying to impose on its citizens and the reality that actually does exist among its citizens today. Pass gas in spanish It’s quite clear that the monopolization of information that the government is attempting to have over its citizens is quickly eroding.

This is probably the biggest weakness that the government has. Gas x strips directions And that’s evident because of the way they react to foreign information coming in, versus other threats like economic sanctions or verbal condemnations by other countries.

The government has been able to sustain their regime over the past seven decades based on the history of their government, their country, and [the] world that they created and were able to distribute. Gas zeta costa rica Their cult and personality-based country, their religion-like political system surrounding the Kim family — all of that is predicated on this history that they have created.

And so the fact that the citizens are now exposed to these lies is very threatening to the North Korean regime. 9gag nsfw Because without the citizens believing in the state’s history and reality that they have fabricated, they don’t have anything to base their internal system on. O gosh And so basically an informed citizenry is fundamentally antithetical to the foundation that the North Korean regime would like to maintain in order to keep power in the Kim family’s hands.

So there’s extreme forms of deterrents and punishment. Gas 78 And there are very clear laws that the North Korean government has imposed on its citizens since the inception of the state, having to do with the forbidden nature of people consuming information that the government does not sanction.

And so legally, that’s very clear. Mp electricity bill payment paschim kshetra And if you talk to North Korean defectors, people ranging from 10 years old and older, they’ll say, “Oh yeah. La gas prices now Everybody knows that you’re not supposed to watch…” It’s a reality.

And so what happens if you don’t abide by those laws? It ranges from inordinate fines to confiscation of goods in your house. Electricity in india ppt Those are definitely the weaker forms of punishment. Static electricity definition physics [Or] detention in detention facilities. Gas in oil mower In the worst cases, political prison camp. Electricity cost in california There’s five different types of labor camps and detention facilities. Gaz 67 The political prison camps are one form of punishment that people can face.

Worst case scenario is death by execution. Gas efficient suv 2014 Usually executions in public arenas are reserved for scapegoats. Bp gas prices ny Public executions are less prevalent only because more and more people are accessing information and they can’t really execute everybody. What is electricity And so that form of worst punishment is relegated to scapegoats. Gas in dogs causes People essentially who are making copies of materials, distributing, and especially distributing the worst forms of information such as things that are very political in nature.

So those forms of punishments are used to deter people. B games 2 That’s how the government tries to exercise its control, trying to prevent people from watching it. Gas x breastfeeding side effects But even execution is not sufficient in trying to prevent people from watching information.

If you don’t have access to the black market or if you’re not willing to take those risks, do you know anything outside of what the government is telling you? “The North Korean people — they’re just people. Electricity and circuits ppt And they’re incredibly smart. A gas station And they’re trying to figure out how they could meet their needs while not getting in trouble.”

So North Korea is divided into nine different provinces. La gas prices map And it’s important to know that close to 75% of defectors who have settled in South Korea come from two provinces that border China and North Korea.

And so all the anecdotes, the stories and surveys that outsiders have access to based on defector interviews and surveys come from essentially a couple towns that produce defectors who are leaving. Gas tax by state So a lot of the information that I know about what’s happening inside North Korea comes from very specific towns and locations in North Korea.

Given that caveat, even if someone does not have access to the black market, which is quite rare because the majority of citizens now depend on the black market just for survival. Electricity 2pm mp3 Food, clothing, other basic necessities all come from street markets. Gas leak smell Even if someone were not to have access, I think word of mouth is consistently, and has been through human history, the biggest source of information that people rely on.

And so even if I as a hypothetical North Korean citizen who’s too poor to watch movies because I don’t have enough money to bribe and basically take the risk, I hear what other people are saying around me when they talk about movies or the latest show that they’re watching. Electricity equations physics I can see different behaviors that young people are trying to mimic based on what they’ve seen in films.

And more importantly, I could see where the goods that people are using are coming from. Electricity in the body And so jeans, for example, are not a North Korean-made fabric. Gas stoichiometry formula But if I see people wearing that, and even if I can’t afford that, I see people are wearing things that are coming from a different country. Electricity bill If it’s coming from a different country, I can then extrapolate why is that the case.

Essentially, you can get anything on the black market. Electricity projects for high school students There are different layers of the street markets. Que gases componen el aire y su porcentaje And so what is semi-legal now are things that are very basic to human survival. Gas vs electric oven review [You can get] food, non-political clothing, non-branded clothing. Electricity video bill nye Maybe women’s cosmetics, hygiene products, things like this. Gas weed strain So that’s what people can openly sell on the street markets. Grade 9 electricity module But then there are different layers of goods that people can get.

If you want very specific cosmetics from South Korea, for example, that’s a little bit more political because those are goods coming from the enemy country. Gas kinetic energy American medicine actually is something that is very expensive on the market in North Korea, but it’s available. Gas oil ratio units Which is crazy because we have all these economic sanctions against them.

Going back to media available — nowadays, a lot of the smugglers are usually men, who are involved in getting the goods from South Korean sources and then pushing it into the North Korean market. Gas 85 octane These people basically have a ear to the ground of what is in demand on the North Korea side. 850 gas block It’s quite common to see South Korean shows that came out last week, for example, to be available on the North Korean black market just a week later. Gasbuddy diesel And so it’s a very, very quickly moving, demand-driven network. Gas efficient cars under 15000 It’s a profit-driven network. Electricity basics And so it’s not all out of goodwill.

Yes. Gas ninjas I spoke with a lot of South Korean government officials whose job is to interview every defector who comes into South Korea. N game Basically to triage who is a spy and who’s not. Electricity voltage in usa And there are quite a few spies who are caught in this interrogation process.

But the South Korean officials, who are interviewing [defectors], see trends where almost everyone has exposure or has watched shows on a regular basis. Gas bubble And everyone, from citizens who don’t have any political jobs to local authorities whose job is it to inspect and catch people, they themselves are watching these illegal materials.

Yes, absolutely. Gsa 2016 It’s a regular phenomenon. Gas up shawty It’s just I think the variation lies in the extent of the punishment and what types of alleged crimes are being cracked on at what given point. Gas numbers stove temperature And so if there is some edict that comes down from Pyongyang and says, “Everyone go after this particular movie, or this particular show,” then there will be very specific crackdowns on that.

Or if people are being a little more brazen or a little bit more barefaced in their activity, the local authorities will start cracking down. 9gag There are known to have been small-scale riots.

I mean, not the Western-style riots where people are, like, throwing things around and, going after police officers. Gas pedal lyrics But there have been instances where when the local authorities are trying to close down markets ’cause they get too big — and some markets range from 400 to 1,100 stalls.

When they’re trying to crack down, [officers will] say, “Everyone, go home, or I’m gonna shut this down,” you’ll see women–these marketeers going after police officers and saying, “Are you gonna provide for me? Where is the money gonna come from?”

And that’s the type of behavior that we could not even imagine taking place in North Korea 20 years ago. Electricity generation by source by state Again, it depends on what alleged crime they’re going after. A gas is compressed at a constant pressure of And some people are sentenced to camps. Electricity song These camps do exist. Gas utility austin And it’s one of the worst things that are taking place in North Korea.

Yeah. Lafayette la gas prices The North Korean people — they’re just people. Electricity laws physics And they’re incredibly smart. Hp gas online booking And they’re trying to figure out how they could meet their needs while not getting in trouble. Gas in california And so North Korean citizens will try to outsmart the local authorities. Gas jokes And [authorities] will try to change their policies to try to clamp down on behavior that was previously not even known. Gas exchange in the lungs This kind of cat-and-mouse game between residents and authorities has very inadvertently changed various storage devices and technologies that are being pushed into North Korea.

One example of that is, back in the early 2000’s, DVDs and CD-ROMs were in vogue in North Korea. C gastronomie And so these really cheap secondhand DVD players were being pushed in from China into North Korea for for quite cheap. Gas bubble disease And so North Koreans would go in the market, buy a DVD player from China, and then find all these various DVDs to play at home. Is there a gas station near me They’ll turn off the lights and do all the things they need to do to not be seen by their neighbors. Electricity prices over time Keep the volume real low. Electricity outage san antonio Basically block out all the windows and watch a DVD.

Authorities were catching onto this. Electricity and circuits class 6 ppt So they would go around and shut off the electricity in various small villages or one apartment building at a time. Electricity lessons 4th grade Shut off the electricity and then go knocking door to door. Oil n gas prices And they would bring with them an electrician, ask for their DVD player. Gastroenterologia o que trata And the electrician would unscrew the device. Gas 4 less redding ca Beause without electricity, the resident can’t press the eject button to hide the DVD.

Residents became very privy to this, talked to their contacts on the black market, people inside South Korea. Gas pain left side And that’s partly how USBs started to become popular. Gaston y daniela USBs became the replacement storage device for DVDs because you can take that out even if electricity is gone.

Yes, there’s a lot of risk involved. P gasol Oftentimes, it’s a fatal risk. Gas 99 cents a litre But the people who know that risk the best are the North Korean citizens who are watching it, consuming it, buying it, lending it, loaning it. Astrid y gaston lima reservations They know very well, from a very young age, the risks that are involved. Gas x dosage chewable Yet they still do that. Bp gas prices akron ohio I don’t think there’s some big, grand political strategy, or some big intention behind watching a chick flick or some, you know, a rom-com. Austin electricity outage But it’s just sheer curiosity. Electricity merit badge pamphlet We all as people, wherever we are in the world, want to know what we don’t know. Gaz 67 for sale And I think that fundamental element of human curiosity is what drives North Korean citizens to take such extreme risk to engage in an activity that seems very innocuous and mundane to outsiders but to them is such a big revelation to them.

Because they’re being exposed to things that are antithetical to what the government has told them their entire lives. Gas delivery And so I think that the fact the North Korean citizens of all ages and all backgrounds are taking such risk in and of itself is so telling that it’s just a very basic human trait, curiosity, that’s driving them to take that that risk.