How power-to-gas technology can be green and profitable watts up with that cheapest gas in texas

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Hydrogen production based on wind power can already be commercially viable today. Until now, it was generally assumed that this environmentally friendly power-to-gas technology grade 6 electricity could not be implemented profitably. Economists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), the University of Mannheim and Stanford University have now described, based on the market situations in Germany and Texas, how flexible production facilities could make this technology a key component in the transition of the energy system.

From fertilizer production, as a coolant for power stations or in fuel cells for cars: Hydrogen is a highly versatile gas. Today, most hydrogen for industrial applications is produced using fossil fuels, above all with natural gas and coal. In an environmentally friendly energy system, however, hydrogen electricity song 2015 could play a different role: as an important storage medium and a means of balancing power distribution networks: excess wind and solar energy can be used to produce hydrogen through water electrolysis. This process is known as power-to-gas. The hydrogen can recover the energy later, for example by generating power and heat in fuel cells, blending hydrogen into the natural gas pipeline network or converted into synthesis gas.

However, power-to-gas technology has always been seen as non-competitive. Gunther Glenk of the Chair of Management Accounting at TUM and Prof. Stefan Reichelstein, a researcher at the University of Mannheim and Stanford University, have now electricity review worksheet completed an analysis demonstrating the feasibility of zero-emission and profitable hydrogen production. Their study, published in the renowned journal Nature Energy, shows that one factor is essential in the current market environments in Germany and Texas:

The concept requires facilities that can be used both to feed power into the grid and to produce hydrogen. These combined systems, which are not yet in common use, must respond optimally to the electricity transformer near house wide fluctuations in wind power output and prices in power markets. “The operator can decide at any time: should I sell the energy or convert it,” explains Stefan Reichelstein.

“For medium and small-scale production, these facilities would already be profitable now,” says Reichelstein. Production on that scale is appropriate for the metal and electronics industries, for example – or for powering a fleet of forklift trucks on a factory site. The economists predict that the process will also be competitive in large-scale production by 2030, for example for refineries, ammonia production electricity generation in usa, assuming that wind power and electrolyte costs maintain the downward trajectory seen in recent years. “The use in fuel cells for trucks and ships is also conceivable”, says Glenk.

“Power-to-gas offers new business models for companies in various industries,” says Glenk. “Power utilities can become hydrogen suppliers for industry. Manufacturers, meanwhile, can get involved in the decentralized power generation business with their own combined facilities. In that way, we can develop a climate-friendly and intelligent infrastructure that optimally links power generation, production and transport.”

You are correct. Gas burners have to be designed for the gas number molecular weight of the fuel, which diffuses at a rate defined by Graham’s Law – inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular weight with other conditions (pressure, temperature) held constant. If the flow is too fast, the flame is unseated from the burner, and may blow itself out, allowing gas to escape and threatening the creation of an explosive mixture. If it is too slow, the flame will die back, with similar risk. Methane (m.w. ~16 : 1/sqrt(16) =0.25) diffuses just over a third of the rate of hydrogen (m.w. ~2 : 1/sqrt(2) ~= 0.707). Another way of looking at this is that the kinetic energy of a gas molecule (1/2 mv^2) is defined by its temperature (kT, where k is Boltzman’s constant), so v is proportional to sqrt(T/m).

With a mixed fuel there is only a narrow range of supply rates that z gas tecate telefono are consistent with maintaining a safe flame for its gas monkey monster truck body components, so it reduces the flexibility of the burners. There are other hazards with a hydrogen fuel in burners: its flame is colourless, making for a bigger risk of accidents. Stenching agents will of course have very much higher molecular weights than hydrogen, meaning that they will diffuse much more slowly and therefore take time before they alert anyone to a gas leak or extinguished flame.

In hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, about 1.4 kg of hydrogen will take the vehicle as far as full tank of gas that typically weighs at least 34 kg of gasoline (assuming a gas engine vehicle that gets 30 mpg). That’s partly due to the energy density of the fuel itself, and the very high efficiency of fuel cell vehicle compared to a typical gasoline fired electricity outage vehicle

Internal combustion engines are inherently inefficient at converting chemical fuel into miles driven. Gasoline engines only convert about 25-30% of the energy in the tank to energy expended at the wheels. Whereas FCVs are typically around 65%. The difference is the heat of combustion that is simply exhausted to the atmosphere rather than harnessed to drive the wheels.

The safety of hydrgen is actually far greater than gasoline fueled car. A rupture in the high pressure fuel physical science electricity review worksheet tank of an FCV will simply vent the gas to atmosphere, where it immediately dissipates given the much lighter density of hydrogen compared to air. A ruptured gasoline tank easily ignites and immolated the occupants of the car, and gasoline freed by a collision will tend to spill or spray all over the interior of the vehicle and stay there until it burns out, which hydrogen won’t do.

Hydrogen fuel is easily produced and distributed by any number of means. Renewable power plants dynamic electricity examples can generate hydrogen electrolytically from water and store the energy in the gas for distribution – eliminating the issue over “dispatchability”. Or it is produced from carbon fuels. The gas itself can be transported via gas pipelines, as we do with natural gas. Or in liquified gas tankers.

WT’ and SP’s are not base load power generators, i.e. they don’t generate power when needed but when available. That means any national Grid using them has to have excess installed power generation capacity in the form of base load power generators such as GT’s to always be able to maintain power supplies to meet current power demands during periods of no/low wind and sun . In any period, WT’s and SP’s only produce power of a fraction of their rated output – say 1 unit electricity cost in india, for WT’s, 30% of their rated output. Using some of that power to generate hydrogen only reduces the power available for feeding the Grid, i.e. the proportion of power generated by the WT’s dedicated base load GT standby power system will be increased. The GT’s operate inefficiently because they are delivering an ever varying output to match the current shortfall in WT output.

The whole system would then have WT’s to generate hydrogen to feed the Grid and to feed fuel cells to generate electricity, together with the GT WT standby units – both GT’s and WT’s operating inefficiently and thus needing subsidies to make them commercially viable, and with extended and enhanced power transmission systems to feed the remote gas in michigan WT’s power to areas of actual power demand.

Once again it must be asked (in this case of expert economists no less) what the starting point is in this analysis. How much petroleum and coaleum did it take to mine/transport/produce those steel windmills/copper conductors and cook the limestone (with additional CO2 chemically also released to get the cement) to make the concrete that anchors them from blowing over — before we’ve liberated the first hydrolyzed hydrogen bubble from their electric output? From there on, the hydrogen could be viewed electricity flow direction as a storage form of their resulting energy — but so was the hydrogen present in the original fuels that might have been employed directly (as now) in hydrocarbon consuming engines.

And whither all the current thrust toward electricity consuming vehicles if this is the future instead? Of course “Green” electric vehicles likewise have much the same unspoken dependence upon fossil fuels (as most everything else that has prospered us for over a century) for their refined metal and plastic components, as well as most of their apparently “clean” (at the point of the battery charging station) propelling gas dryer vs electric dryer singapore electricity.