How to make trucks and buses more efficient, and better for the environment – citylab

Transportation emissions make up 26 percent of all greenhouse gases in the U.S., according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Gas x dosage pregnancy Smaller vehicles like personal cars, SUVs, and pickups , account for 60 percent of those emissions. Grade 9 electricity questions (That’s why the most effective way for individuals to cut their emissions is to improve their own driving habits.)

Meanwhile, medium- and heavy-duty trucks produce 23 percent of all transportation emissions in the U.S. Gas constant in atm even though they only make up 5 percent of all vehicles on the road. Gas prices in texas Buses fall into a miscellaneous category that amounts to 4 percent of transportation emissions. Electricity usage by state There are far fewer of these carbon-heavy vehicles, but their efficiency is ridiculously low—around 7 mpg on average, lower for certain kinds of truck. Grade 9 current electricity test That means even small improvements in the most-polluting vehicles can have a big effect on overall emissions.

Cutting those emissions from transport is necessary for any vision of a society that doesn’t pump dangerous amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Gas near me prices Now, a growing community of engineers and entrepreneurs is tackling the challenge of fuel efficiency among the dirtiest vehicles, and they’re getting results. Electricity pictures To complete the transition to a low-carbon society, policymakers will need to encourage and implement innovations to address these major causes of pollution. Gas works park Buses

Diesel buses anchor the team for most transit systems, but they’re not the cleanest things to have around. Grade 6 electricity unit ontario They’re loud, smelly, and pump carcinogenic particles into the air. Q mart gas station Because they sell to large institutional buyers, the industry has been buffered from consumer trends, but that’s starting to change.

Cleaning up the bus sector starts with a change in manufacturing processes. Gas in spanish These vehicles are “a hand-me-down from the truck industry,” says Ryan Popple, CEO of electric bus company Proterra. Q card gas station Conventional bus makers use heavy metal chassis with lots of rivets and steel, and rely on diesel engines produced for the trucking industry. Gas under 3 dollars (Proterra)

“A bus in a lot of ways is a truck that’s been optimized to carry human beings,” Popple says. I have electricity in my body “The problem with that is trucks are more efficient when they’re on the open road at a constant RPM, whereas in the duty cycle of an urban bus it starts and stops 500 times in a single day.”

The engineers at Proterra rebuilt the bus from scratch using a lightweight composite chassis powered by lithium ion batteries. Electricity lesson plans 8th grade This lightness helps the buses achieve fuel efficiency equivalent to more than 20 miles per gallon. Astrid y gaston lima menu english They also come with active safety features and wireless internet built in. Gas lighting And since there are so few moving pieces, minimal excess heat, and little material at risk of rusting, the maintenance costs come way down compared to diesel.

The price has been falling, too. Static electricity bill nye Five years ago an electric bus cost $1 million and diesel was $450,000. Gas x dosage for dogs Now Proterra’s basic model sells for $749,000, comparable to a hybrid-diesel bus. Electricity physics formulas And, Popple notes, a growing number of jurisdictions don’t allow pure diesel buses anymore due to air quality concerns. Electricity online games When you calculate lifetime costs (vehicle plus fuel and maintenance), diesel comes to $1.4 million and an EV bus is $1 million, he says.

“The operators don’t want transit vehicles sitting still, charging,” Popple says. Gas engine efficiency “When a transit vehicle’s moving, they’re making money.” (Proterra)

The new Extended Range model can go 194 miles on a single charge, which covers a lot of daily bus routes. Gas vs diesel truck There’s also a backup plan: bus routes typically have a layover point where the driver pauses at the end of each cycle; this allows some buffer in the schedule for variations in drive time. 66 gas station near me Proterra designed an overhead charging station that goes in at that layover point and can fill up the Fast Charge Model’s 100 kilowatt-hour battery in just 12 minutes.

“In the long run, it’s possible that electric vehicles are more useful in transit than diesel vehicles, because theoretically you’d never take the vehicle back to a fueling barn,” Popple says, adding that, for olfactory reasons, it would be best to at least stop for cleaning every 24 hours or so.

This company serves as proof of concept that electric buses can work—16 different transit agencies have purchased a total of 155 vehicles from Proterra, and the company is working through an 18-month backlog of orders. Electricity physics test Urban trucking

While buses carry people through the city, a diverse fleet of trucks delivers and picks up just about everything else: garbage, packages, beer. Gas oil ratio for leaf blower These heavy vehicles don’t have the same kind of route predictability that allows Proterra to recharge batteries at key points. Electricity 1 unit how many watts Until battery technology improves, then, they’ll need to look elsewhere to boost efficiency.

Wright, the engineer, thinks he’s found one. Static electricity jokes His company, Wrightspeed, produces electric drivetrain range extenders for trucks. Gas used in ww1 Once installed, the truck runs on electricity, which is much more efficient than internal combustion, and captures energy each time the vehicle brakes. A shell gas station near me When the battery runs out, a highly efficient gas turbine kicks in to recharge it. Gas vs electric stove top The turbines burn fuel much more efficiently than a traditional piston engine, resulting in fewer nasty emissions. Electricity quiz grade 9 Compared to the national average of 2 to 3 mpg for a diesel garbage truck, this system runs around 6 mpg.

The company is still ramping up production. Electricity usage calculator south africa After a two-truck trial run, FedEx ordered 25 delivery trucks with the electric drivetrain in 2014. Gas chamber Wrightspeed also signed a deal with NZ Bus, the biggest city bus operator in New Zealand. Up electricity bill payment online It’s too early to know if it will catch on, but one factor in favor of this technology is its self-containment: the drivetrain doesn’t require any capital-intensive infrastructure to keep the vehicles running. Electricity and magnetism purcell pdf Companies or municipalities just need to pay for a one-time conversion or buy new trucks with the drivetrain, and that’s it. Electricity manipulation Wrightspeed CEO Ian Wright explains the technology behind his electric-powered engine at the company’s headquarters in San Jose , Calif. Jokes gas prices (AP Photo/Marcio Jose Sanchez) Long-distance trucking

Long-haul trucks carry the weight of modern commerce on their backs. Gas laws definition chemistry They handle 70 percent of freight in the U.S. Gas density calculator by weight, twice as much each year as all other transportation modes combined. Electricity el paso apartments The problem, as far as the climate is concerned, is that they’re not very efficient and they’re terrible candidates for electrification.

Shipping companies need trucks to cover hundreds of miles with minimal stops, and that’s something hydrocarbon fuel does really well. Youtube gas pedal dance A full diesel tank can carry a truck 1,500 miles or more; a fully charged Tesla Model S can run about 270 miles, and that’s a super-light passenger car. Wd gaster cosplay Right now, electric really isn’t on the table for long-distance trucking, says John Woodrooffe, a large vehicle efficiency expert at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

“You’d probably have to fill the whole doggone truck up with batteries, quite literally, without being able to move any cargo,” he says. Electricity year 4 “What we’ve found is that the energy density in diesel fuel is very hard to replicate in any substitute fuel.”

Even if major innovations in battery technology came along, the industry would have to be persuaded to swap out several million trucks and build a continent-wide charging infrastructure. E85 gas stations in ohio And then the power grid would have to be ready to handle it all. Gasco abu dhabi address That electricity would need to come from clean sources in order for the electrified transport to actually eliminate emissions.

For now, progress on heavy trucks will mean eking every last bit of efficiency out of internal combustion vehicles, by optimizing everything from driving behavior to aerodynamics. Mp electricity bill payment online indore The EPA is working on new efficiency standards to do just that. Gas oil ratio for weed eater Adding up all the different technologies available now, incremental improvements could lead to fuel savings of around 40 percent, says Rachel Muncrief, heavy duty vehicle program lead at the International Council on Clean Transportation. Gas 0095 download The Obama administration proposed tougher mileage standards for medium and heavy-duty trucks in 2015. Gas efficient cars under 10000 (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

Drivers can take a more targeted approach to fuel economy with new tools like Headwind Hunter, an app that advises drivers based on real-time wind conditions in their area. Nyc electricity cost per kwh Creator Matthew Merzig, president of Aerodynamic Applications, says if drivers use his program to ride a tailwind and ease off the gas when winds are against them, they can save 1 to 3 percent on fuel economy annually. Gas monkey cast For independent truckers who spend on average $50,000 to $60,000 in fuel costs each year, that adds up.

The advent of automated driving holds an alluring possibility: platooning. Gas laws worksheet answers and work Automated driving could be so precise that trucks form a tight line, bumper to bumper, at high speeds, which significantly decreases drag. Electricity towers health risks It’s the freight equivalent of cyclists drafting in a race, or geese flying in a V. Wikipedia electricity consumption The underlying technology for vehicle to vehicle communication is largely proven, says Zach Barasz, who invests in transportation technology companies at Kleiner Perkins Caufield and Byers’ Green Growth Fund.

“There’s nothing magical about the technology side—it’s a matter of building out a system that’s durable to every single corner case,” he says. Electricity use in the us “You can’t be 99.9 percent right. E85 gas stations in houston You need a couple more nines.”

Uniform design changes across the trucking industry are problematic, Muncrief says, because every truck is customized for its particular job. Gas unlimited New designs have to be sensitive to the array of commercial uses that trucks perform, or they could drive a lot of people out of business.

Certain efficiency gains are also happening in tire design to reduce rolling resistance and truck design to reduce drag. Electricity generation capacity A study by Woodrooffe notes that radical redesign of trucks and trailers could theoretically cut 42 percent of aerodynamic drag, but that kind of overhaul is unlikely in the near-to-middle-future. Electricity sources usa Simpler additions, like adding skirting along the sides and back of trucks to reduce wind resistance, could improve fuel efficiency by 10 percent. La gasolina cancion “We have international markets and free trade at the moment because transportation costs permit that.”

The government could achieve much greater efficiency, Woodrooffe says, by modernizing the regulations that govern truck size and weight. Gas up the jet Canada, for instance, allows shipping trucks up to 137,500 pounds, compared to the U.S. Hp gas online complaint upper limit of 80,000. Gas exchange in the lungs happens by the process of Big Canadian trucks deliver twice as much cargo with 68 percent less fuel use and emissions than the largest trucks allowed in the U.S. Gas evolution reaction Canada has also shown that, with the right policies, bigger trucks don’t have to be more dangerous.

“We have a [size and weight] policy that dates back to around 1980, that’s the last time we really revised it,” Woodrooffe says. La gasolina mp3 “Every other country has had reform within size and weight over the past 30 years, usually on a fairly regular basis. J gastroenterol impact factor We’re in the dark ages, really.”

Adopting evidence-based regulations for bigger truck capacity, he says, means the U.S. A gas has could get its shipping done with fewer vehicles, and that’s better for the environment and for safety. Electricity storage cost per kwh Improving individual fuel economy will help, but the big picture strategy needs to focus on emissions per cargo ton-mile; that is , how much carbon a truck burns to carry a certain amount of freight a certain distance.

This evolution won’t happen in a vacuum. 4 gases in the atmosphere As Woodrooffe points out, how humans move freight around gets at some really fundamental principles of how societies are organized. Gas near me app “We have international markets and free trade at the moment because transportation costs permit that,” he says. Electricity 2pm “If transportation costs were high, or transportation was unavailable, then that option wouldn’t exist.” These shipping practices helped create climate change; now, to maintain a climate that allows trade to flourish, humanity will need to find a new way to move things around.