Human factors affecting disagreements among interpreters _ 2016-11-01 _ quality magazine

Radiographic testing (RT) techniques should be developed to achieve the highest image quality level achievable. Electricity kwh to unit converter The choices of energy/source and film imaging plates and processing should be made accordingly. Gas and bloating after every meal Probability of Detection (POD) analysis cannot be applied effectively where the quality level is marginal or unacceptable due to improper techniques, which many times are used to increase productivity. Gas and bloating We have experienced many questionable RT images produced by the “trial and error” technique rather than by scientifically developing the optimum technique. Electricity definition chemistry When image quality is found to be unsatisfactory, it is critical for the RTFI to require that the radiographer retake exposures to produce images of an acceptable quality to allow proper interpretation.

It is commonly acknowledged within the NDE industry that the major variable in radiographic interpretation involves the personnel performing the evaluation—the RTFI, be it with film-based or digitally-based inspections. Gas city indiana From our own experience, we have seen worldwide a general lack of consistency in the interpretation process due to the interpreter’s background, training, experience, and his ability to effectively understand and apply the requirements of the applicable interpretation code. Hair electricity dance moms In order for the POD concept to be meaningfully applied, the issues related to the variations in the qualifications of the interpreter must be addressed. J gastroenterol hepatol impact factor There are many variables related to the interpreter and the interpretation process that must be considered, including but not limited to:

The disparities in the interpretation of radiographs are not new. Gas dryer vs electric dryer singapore In an early study conducted by a research laboratory, five certified RTFIs who had been trained in a master apprentice program reviewed 350 radiographs. Electricity of the heart Their interpretations were in agreement on detection and identification of the discontinuity on 238 radiographs or 68% of the radiographs. Gas zombies This meant that they disagreed on a total of 112 radiographs! Based on these results, a “unified” training program was initiated using welding discontinuity categories. Electricity examples A procedure was developed and the results of the nine certified RTFIs trained under this unified program were compared to those of nine RTFIs who were training under the master apprentice training program. Electricity experiments The interpretation included 96 selected radiographs. Gas in oil There was a 17% disagreement among the unified training group interpreters while the master apprentice interpreters had a 44% disagreement rate.

What does all this really mean when considering POD? It merely points out the fact that the consistency and accuracy of radiographic image interpretation is an issue that is affected by the multiple variables mentioned earlier. Electricity lessons for 5th grade And this lack of consistency is not limited to industrial radiographic image interpretation. Mp electricity bill pay indore In another early study, a review of the medical radiographs of patients who were diagnosed with tuberculosis indicated an average disagreement in one out of three cases or only 67% agreement. M gastrocnemius In a second independent interpretation of the same radiographs, several radiologists disagreed with their own previous interpretations in an average of one out of five times or 80%.

There are no reasonable solutions that will always guarantee highly reliable and accurate interpretations. Gas block dimple jig The most logical solution is to combine in-depth extensive training with significant interpretation experience.

Many of the disagreements encountered in radiographic testing should never happen. Electricity in costa rica Whether it is due to ignorance such as a lack of understanding the requirements, sloppiness, or just inattention on behalf of RTFIs, it should not be tolerated. Gasco abu dhabi contact Incompetence does not have a place in NDE and it will have an impact on applying any POD analysis results. Inert gas definition chemistry In addition to these ‘technical’ reasons for interpretation disagreement, it should also be recognized that occasionally basic, unethical behavior is seen in the radiographing and/or interpretation stages. Gas in babies home remedies We have seen instances where budget and/or contract schedule concerns appeared to play at least partial roles in the production of wholly unacceptable interpretation results. Electricity magnetism It should be obvious that the major source of disagreement in the interpretation of radiographs is the personnel. Gas bijoux discount code On a positive note, it should be recognized that there are many interpreters who are highly qualified and consistently perform RT image interpretations in a completely ethical manner with reliability and accuracy. Electricity production by state The major reasons for disagreement among interpreters include:

Insufficient Sensitivity – The essential hole or wire image should be clearly discernible. Electricity distribution companies In the case of the wire IQI, the essential wire image should be discernible across the entire weld image or area of interest. Gas quality comparison With the shim type IQI, one should not have to use their imagination to discern the essential hole image.

Inappropriate Film Density – There are sound technical reasons for Code density requirements. La gasolina lyrics translation Densities that are too low will not provide the image contrast necessary to effectively discern discontinuities and densities that are excessively high will make interpretation difficult or impossible. 9gag instagram videos Higher densities which fall within the Code acceptable range will result in better image contrast.

Type of Discontinuity – While there is high agreement when evaluating volumetric type discontinuities such as porosity and slag inclusions, the tight, planar, angular discontinuities are many times more difficult to discern even when high quality images have been produced. Gastric sleeve scars This is the area where most disagreement occurs and unfortunately involves the most critical type flaws (tight cracks, angular lack of fusion, narrow slag lines, etc.).

Coverage – This is an area that is overlooked at times but where disagreements occur. Electricity research centre The area of interest is defined as the region that demonstrates that the quality level has been achieved and that the density falls within the acceptable range. Gas oil ratio formula This will happen more frequently when smaller diameter or thicker wall pipe welds are examined.

There are numerous cases that can be cited that emphasize the need for highly qualified interpreters and POD, in the area of radiographic interpretation. Gas station car wash Several are mentioned here with fictitious references to the specific projects, but all are a matter of public record.

A prototype facility designed to decommission weapons utilizing highly poisonous gases was constructed on a remote atoll in the South Pacific. Basic electricity quizlet After the plant was up and running, substandard radiographs that were taken during construction were inadvertently discovered. Arkansas gas association Many of these radiographs could not be interpreted and were unreadable due to densities that were either too low or so high (dark) that they were impossible to evaluate. Electricity notes for class 10 There were also issues dealing with unacceptable quality levels, artifacts in the areas of interest, and just overall inferior techniques. Gas x side effects After a costly re-review was completed, the decision was made to shut the plant down, and over 700 welds had to be re-radiographed. Electricity out in one room The cost of the shutdown (for four months) and the re-examinations was major. Electricity word search answer key After the affected welds were either repaired or replaced, the plant started up and continued operations until it was finally decommissioned. M power electricity Other major costs involved the legal actions that were initiated against the contractor and their NDT subcontractor.

In 1979 during the days of nuclear power plant construction, in the movie “The China Syndrome,” a reporter found what appeared to be a cover-up at a nuclear power plant. Electricity formulas physics In part, the cover-up dealt with the falsification of weld radiographs. Electricity experiments elementary school Unfortunately, this doesn’t just happen in the movies. Electricity journal While the radiographs of piping were going through their final review at an almost completed nuclear power plant in the U.S. Gas symptoms midwest, it was discovered that the 2-2T hole images in a number of radiographs had been tampered with. Gas news of manipur These radiographs were taken just prior to the Christmas holidays some years ago, and it was obvious that the image of the 2-2T hole (the essential hole image required by the Code) was not visible. Gas upper back pain Instead of taking the correct action and re-examining the welds, the radiographers decided to make their own hole image by scratching a circular pattern on the film surface in the exact location where the hole image was supposed to be. Gas chamber jokes This led to the re-evaluation of radiographs at nineteen utilities and caused a number of welds to be re-radiographed during subsequent outages. Gas oil ratio calculator This is an example of a lack of integrity on the part of the inspectors and company and should have never happened. Gas near me cheap It is also a case where any POD analysis is rendered useless.

The piping welds in a gas processing plant undergoing expansion were subjected to extensive radiographic examinations using several subcontractors. Gas x while pregnant There were over 30,000 welds radiographed and evaluated by the subcontractors. 5 gas laws Upon a quality control review of the radiographs by the owner, over 3,000 radiographs were interpreted as not meeting the Code and should have been rejected for the following reasons:

• Almost 80% were rejected for film quality and technique problems including unacceptable IQI (Image Quality Indicators) images, film densities below and above the Code stipulated range, artifacts in the area of interest, insufficient coverage, and the presence of excessive debris and weld spatter.

Note: Some radiographs exhibited both unacceptable film quality and discontinuities that did not meet the Code requirements. Electricity 101 youtube The radiographs rightly could and should have been rejected without any attempt at interpretation.

To summarize, out of the original 3,000-plus disputed radiographs, approximately 90% were determined to be unacceptable to the Code and approximately 10% were found to be acceptable. Electricity trading Based on industry trends, the transition to digital radiography should significantly reduce interpreter disagreement and provide for more accuracy in POD.

Training – Satisfactory completion of high-level film interpretation training courses taught by instructors qualified in RT image interpretation is a good start. Gas prices in michigan But training alone will not guarantee that an interpreter is qualified.

Experience – Experience should be achieved while jointly evaluating RT images with qualified interpreters. Eseva electricity bill payment This requirement is essential and preferably should include reviews of a ‘substantial’ number of radiographs, which is quantified on a case-by case basis. Electricity definition wikipedia Companies and RTFIs-in-training should not be content with the reaching of any minimum number of reviews established by professional societies or organizations. Gas efficient suv 2008 The fledgling RTFI should be ‘left on his own’ only when both the company and RTFI are convinced that the RTFI is capable of performing quality work. 8 gas laws True interpretive competence builds when an increasing number of images are reviewed with a qualified interpreter who has extensive experience.

Audit – Oversight is an essential requirement in NDE. La gastronomia Oversights, or audits, need to be performed by qualified interpreters. Gas yoga This is a key function usually performed on behalf of the owner. Electricity lab physics There should be absolutely clear owner standards and contract requirements which place the ‘final say’ with the owner’s qualified RT oversight staff, considering the owner’s responsibility for safety of the facility and operating staff.

i Fuksoc, Ferenc, Muller, Christina, Scharmack, Martina “Human Factors: The NDE Reliability of Routine Radiographic Film Evaluation”, 15th World Congress on NonDestructive Testing, 15-21 October 2000, Rome, Italy

ii Megling, R.C. Victaulic t gasket and M.L. Wb state electricity board bill pay Abrams. Gas bubbler Relative Rules of Experience/Learning and Visual Factors on Radiographic Inspector Performance. Gas vs diesel prices Research Report SRR73-22. Gas bloating frequent urination San Diego, CA: Naval Personnel and Training Research Laboratory June 1973

iii Berock, J.F. Electricity notes R.G. Electricity jeopardy 4th grade Wells and M.L. Bp gas prices Abrams, Development and Validation of an Experimental Radiographic Reading Training Program. Gas laws worksheet Report AD-782-332. V gashi 2012 San Diego, CA Navy Personnel Research and Development Center June, 1974

iv Mohr, Gregory A., Willems, Peter “Factors Affecting Probability of Detection with Computed Radiography”, 17th World Congress on NonDestructive Testing 25-28 October 2008, Shanghai, China

v Tang, B.P.Y., Hungler, P., Sweetapple,C.P., Bennett, P.G.I. 9gag wiki “A Quantitative Evaluation of the Canadian Forces New Radiology Inspection Systems for the Detection of Water Ingress in CF188 Flight Control Surfaces”, 17th World Congress on NonDestructive Testing 25-28 October 2008, Shanghai, China