Human rights and sexual violence women and public policy program, harvard kennedy school electricity laws in pakistan

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Rape, sexual assault and violence against women are severe human rights violations, yet they remain widespread around the globe. grade 6 electricity test Although men and boys experience gender-based violence as well, women around the world are disproportionately affected by sexual violence, both during peace and wartime. According to the World Health Organization, more than 35 percent of women experience physical and sexual violence throughout their lifetime.

Sexual assault and rape are extremely traumatizing, with life-long repercussions for the victim’s health and well being. f gas certification logo Women who have experienced intimate partner violence are significantly more likely to have alcohol-use problems, to suffer from depression, or to acquire HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, the prevalence of violence against women has adverse effects on economic growth and development. Estimates of the economic costs of gender-based violence in terms of lost productivity as well as increased health care costs range from 1.2 to 2 percent of GDP, which amounts to as much as many governments of developing countries spend on primary education.

Preventing violence against women, and sexual violence in particular, is crucial for improving the livelihood and well being of women around the world. gas laws worksheet with answers Rape and sexual assault are often reflective of a persisting imbalance in power dynamics between men and women as well as of cultural and social norms in our societies. To overcome these obstacles:

• Understand The Causes Of Rape And Sexual Violence: To find the right policy strategies for combating sexual violence and rape, we need to develop a better understanding of its causes and driving forces. electricity physics ppt For example, research has shown that rape in wartime settings is not necessarily deployed as a strategic weapon as usually assumed, but is used as a mechanism of socialization to strengthen unit cohesion amongst armed groups that recruit soldiers by force and abduction.

• Engage Men: Allowing male partners to participate in communication training and problem-solving workshops can have positive effects on women’s health as well as on relationship quality. In the case of wartime rape, engaging and involving former perpetrators and combatants in reconciliation processes can be crucial to sustain peace and create stable and prospering post-conflict societies.

Rape is common during wartime, but even within the context of the same war, some armed groups perpetrate rape on a massive scale while others never do. In Rape during Civil War, Dara Kay Cohen examines variation in the severity and perpetrators of rape using an original dataset of reported rape during all major civil wars from 1980 to 2012. electricity lesson plans for 5th grade Cohen also conducted extensive fieldwork, including interviews with perpetrators of wartime rape, in three postconflict counties, finding that rape was widespread in the civil wars of the Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste but was far less common during El Salvador’s civil war.

Cohen argues that armed groups that recruit their fighters through the random abduction of strangers use rape—and especially gang rape—to create bonds of loyalty and trust between soldiers. electricity cost per kwh by country The statistical evidence confirms that armed groups that recruit using abduction are more likely to perpetrate rape than are groups that use voluntary methods, even controlling for other confounding factors. Important findings from the fieldwork—across cases—include that rape, even when it occurs on a massive scale, rarely seems to be directly ordered. electricity flow chart Instead, former fighters describe participating in rape as a violent socialization practice that served to cut ties with fighters’ past lives and to signal their commitment to their new groups. Results from the book lay the groundwork for the systematic analysis of an understudied form of civilian abuse. gas hydrates india The book will also be useful to policymakers and organizations seeking to understand and to mitigate the horrors of wartime rape.

As UN Women has powerfully argued, concrete actions to eliminate the debilitating fear of violence must be a centerpiece of any future global development framework. The main objective of this paper is to review constitutional and legislative developments around gender-based violence, and how a human rights framework can support this critical element of the post 2015 global development agenda. We find that there has been major progress in establishing the right of women to live free of violence in both international and national law, and progress on both fronts has been especially rapid over the past decade or so. Today, national legislation in much of the world is consistent in not only prohibiting and criminalizing violence but also providing mechanisms to support victims and their families in a range of ways. The evolving jurisprudence on due diligence is a promising basis for holding governments accountable for gender-based violence in the context of the post-2015 framework. At the same time we recognize that the implementation of the laws on paper is often weak, and violence too often goes unreported. Moreover, information about the effectiveness of legislation and their implementation is scarce, and better efforts are needed in terms of both regular monitoring and evaluation. The important role of women’s groups and civil society is highlighted, both in terms of bringing about reform and monitoring implementation. More