Hydrocarbon – wikipedia 9gag


• Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest of the hydrocarbon species. They are composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen. The formula for acyclic saturated hydrocarbons (i.e., alkanes) is C nH 2 n+2. [1] : 623 The most general form of saturated hydrocarbons is C nH 2 n+2(1- r), where r is the number of rings. Those with exactly one ring are the cycloalkanes. Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis h gas l gas brennwert of petroleum fuels and are found as either linear or branched species. Substitution reaction is their characteristics property (like chlorination reaction to form chloroform). Hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula but gas bubble in throat different structural formulae are called structural isomers. [1] : 625 As given in the example of 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues, branched hydrocarbons can be chiral. [1] : 627 Chiral saturated hydrocarbons constitute the side chains of biomolecules such as chlorophyll and tocopherol. [5]

• Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. Those with double bond are called alkenes. Those with one double bond mp electricity bill pay indore have the formula C nH 2 n (assuming non-cyclic structures). [1] : 628 Those containing triple bonds are called alkyne. Those with one triple bond have the formula C nH 2 n−2. [1] : 631

Because of differences in molecular structure, the empirical formula remains different between hydrocarbons; in linear or straight-run alkanes, alkenes and alkynes, the amount of bonded hydrogen lessens in alkenes and alkynes due to the self-bonding or catenation of carbon preventing entire saturation of the hydrocarbon by the formation of double or triple bonds.

This inherent ability of hydrocarbons electricity magnetism to bond to themselves is known as catenation, and allows hydrocarbons to form more complex molecules, such as cyclohexane, and in rarer cases, arenes such as benzene. This ability comes from the fact that the bond character between carbon atoms is entirely non-polar, in that the distribution of electrons between the two elements is somewhat even due to the same electronegativity gas near me open now values of the elements (~0.30), and does not result in the formation of an electrophile.

Generally, with catenation comes the loss of the total amount of bonded hydrocarbons and an increase in the amount of energy required for bond cleavage due to strain exerted upon the molecule; in molecules such as cyclohexane, this is referred to as ring strain, and occurs due to the destabilized spatial electron configuration of the atom.

In simple chemistry, as per valence bond theory gas 93, the carbon atom must follow the 4-hydrogen rule, which states that the maximum number of atoms available to bond with carbon is equal to the number of electrons that are attracted into the outer shell of carbon. In terms of shells, carbon consists of an incomplete outer shell, which comprises 4 electrons, and thus has 4 electrons available for covalent or dative bonding.

Some hydrocarbons also are abundant in the solar system. Lakes of liquid methane and electricity lesson plans year 6 ethane have been found on Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. [6] Hydrocarbons are also abundant in nebulae forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. [7] Simple hydrocarbons and their variations [ edit ] Number of

Methane (CH 4) and ethane (C 2H 6) are gaseous at ambient temperatures and cannot be readily liquefied by pressure alone. Propane (C 3H 8) is however easily liquefied gas monkey monster truck, and exists in ‘propane bottles’ mostly as a liquid. Butane (C 4H 10) is so easily liquefied that it provides a safe, volatile fuel for small pocket lighters. Pentane (C 5H 12) is a colorless liquid at room temperature, commonly used in chemistry and industry as a powerful nearly odorless solvent of waxes and high molecular weight organic compounds, including greases. Hexane (C 6H 14) is also a widely used non-polar, non-aromatic solvent, as well as a significant fraction of common gasoline.

The C 6 through C 10 alkanes, alkenes and isomeric cycloalkanes are the top components of gasoline electricity distribution costs, naphtha, jet fuel and specialized industrial solvent mixtures. With the progressive addition of carbon units, the simple non-ring structured hydrocarbons have higher viscosities, lubricating indices, boiling points, solidification temperatures, and deeper color. At the opposite extreme from methane lie the heavy tars that remain as the lowest fraction in a crude oil refining retort. They are collected and widely utilized as roofing electricity wikipedia simple english compounds, pavement composition, wood preservatives (the creosote series) and as extremely high viscosity shear-resisting liquids.

Hydrocarbon poisoning such as that of benzene and petroleum usually occurs accidentally by inhalation or ingestion of these cytotoxic chemical compounds. Intravenous or subcutaneous injection of petroleum compounds with intent of suicide or abuse is an extraordinary event that can result in local damage or systemic toxicity such as tissue necrosis, abscess electricity joules formation, respiratory system failure and partial damage to the kidneys, the brain and the nervous system. Moaddab and Eskandarlou report a case of chest wall necrosis and empyema resulting from attempting suicide by injection of petroleum into the pleural cavity. [9] Reactions gas news uk [ edit ]

Extracted hydrocarbons in a liquid form are referred to as petroleum (literally rock oil) or mineral oil, whereas hydrocarbons in a gaseous form are referred to as natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are found in the Earth’s subsurface with the tools of petroleum geology and are a significant source of fuel and raw materials for the production of organic chemicals.

Many hydrocarbons are highly flammable, therefore, care should be taken to prevent injury. Benzene and many aromatic compounds are possible carcinogens, and proper safety equipment k electric share price must be worn to prevent these harmful compounds from entering the body. If hydrocarbons undergo combustion in tight areas, toxic carbon monoxide can form. Hydrocarbons should be kept away from fluorine compounds due to the high probability of forming toxic hydrofluoric acid.

Hydrocarbons are introduced into the environment through their extensive use as fuels and chemicals as well as through leaks or accidental spills during exploration, production, refining, or transport. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon contamination of soil is a serious global issue due electric zap sound effect free to contaminant persistence and the negative impact on human health. [14] See also [ edit ]