Hyperlipid more on insulin and the glycerophosphate shuttle grade 9 electricity unit test

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The beauty of ketones is that they do not deplete cytoplasmic NAD+ at all and only consume one mitochondrial NAD+ during the conversion of BHB to AcAc. eseva electricity bill payment Because this happens within the mitochondria this, plus any NADH generated at the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is sitting next to complex I, the most prolific re-generator of NAD+ in the cell…

Of course no one in their right mind would expect glycolysis to be arranged in such a manner as to require the glycerophosphate shuttle for simple NAD+ regeneration. This is a wasteful loss of four pumped protons and this energy will appear as heat. Think of brown adipose tissue, full of mtG3Pdh, assuming insulin is plentiful. gas tax rates by state The correct pathway for the metabolism of glucose without insulin is to lactate without any overall depletion of cytoplasmic NAD+. Lactate can then be taken up by mitochondria exactly as ketones are. Lactate will, in the mitochondria, be reconverted to pyruvate, depleting mitochondrial NAD+ in exactly the same way as the conversion of BHB to AcAc does. Equally this happen right next door to complex I, just waiting to regenerate NAD+ and keep that NAD+:NADH ratio nice and high.

The whole point of the glycerophosphate shuttle ( in Protons terms) is to facilitate insulin signalling. electricity quiz 4th grade Insulin is the hormone of plenty, used to encourage caloric ingress in to cells. Loss of the four pumped protons due to bypassing complex I and using mtG3Pdh instead as part of insulin signalling appears perfectly reasonable under conditions of active caloric ingress. Sustained insulin signalling causes sustained loss of cytoplasmic NADH, which generates NAD+. static electricity definition science Once this has happened there is no longer the surfeit of cytoplasmic NADH over NAD+ from glycolysis, which is essential to drive lactate formation. Glycolysis must therefor stop at pyruvate under insulin.

A sudden, profound fall in insulin levels in the presence of glucose is pathology. It generates ketoacidosis, classically from acute beta cell destruction during the onset of DMT1. There is always a profound metabolic acidosis from the failure to suppress glucagon-induced lipolysis and subsequent massive acidic ketone generation. Under the canonical view the absence of insulin should not stop NAD+ regeneration by the glycerophosphate shuttle.

Insulin. gas tax nj Insulin should be used primarily as cross talk between the pancreas and the liver. I’d have to go to Kraft’s work on what level of systemic insulin he considers pathology and I’ve loaned his book out to somebody. Insulin has no right entering the systemic circulation at 10,000picomoles. pass gas in spanish Probably not even 1000picomoles. If we accept that carbs were commonly consumed during evolution we would expect those carbs to be fibrous and never to deliver bulk glucose/fructose to the liver in quantities or speeds which allow penetration past the liver and in to the systemic circulation, requiring an emergency insulin dump from the pancreas to re-establish normoglycemia. gas 101 This is pathology. Maybe honey is the exception for which a pathological level of insulin might be needed to deal with a human gather-able foodstuff…

So insulin, above basal levels, has limited role in the systemic circulation on an ancestral diet. Insulin signalling should be a minor player in a diet based around large herbivore fat. The glycerophosphate shuttle should only be as active as the low levels of insulin require, ie not very active. Pyruvate supply to the mitochondria should be low and Schurr’s beloved lactate should be the core mitochondrial fuel. Mostly.

No one should ever secrete so much insulin to induce insulin-induced-insulin resistance. I would think of the glycerophosphate shuttle as a sensor or emergency pressure valve. Not a bulk throughput but important for regulation of calorie ingress never the less. Nowadays it is so active that it has, to Schurr’s dismay, taken pride of place as “normal” glycolysis. electricity towers health risks Today it is normal. Today we have pathology.