Indian human spaceflight program (hsp) page 7 indian defence forum gas oil ratio for leaf blower


It is a natural evolution of what the country has achieved so far, according to Mylswamy Annadurai, the man behind several satellite and planetary missions, who has served as director of the ISRO Satellite Centre in Bengaluru. electricity units to kwh It will let India contribute to international spaceflight as space exploration needs to be a collaborative effort among nations, he said.

On a calm morning in early July this year, a 14-tonne unmanned prototype capsule flew down on parachutes to safely land some three kilometres into the sea. The entire test, from lift-off to landing, lasted just under five minutes, but for the engineers managing it, this was a great deal: the emergency escape system, a critical technology for a manned spaceflight, worked almost flawlessly.

Given India’s size, building the national space programme was a necessity, as all these services are as basic as air, water, shelter, education, and food, says Susmita Mohanty, CEO of Earth2Orbit, a Bengaluru-based consulting firm and space startup. “In a world of constant political bullying and embargo regimes, it makes perfect sense for countries to be technologically independent and self-reliant,” Mohanty said.

Ram cites the example of APJ Abdul Kalam, a rocket scientist and former Indian president, who helped develop a new type of a coronary stent, a device placed in arteries to supply blood to the heart. The material used for its production was high-grade rocket steel. Kalam’s work on military missiles also led to the development of ultra-light callipers, which helps polio-affected patients walk.

In 2008, it put a probe, Chandrayaan-1, on the lunar orbit. It became the first spacecraft to discover water on moon. It was a breakthrough for ISRO’s ambitions, too. “We graduated from a regular space-faring nation to the prestigious league occupied by NASA, ESA, and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency),” said Annadurai, the mission’s project director.

Before any flight happens, ISRO will have to put all the technologies to work together and test them to reach the desired accuracy. The most important pieces it still doesn’t have are the life support system and heat shields for atmospheric re-entry. And modifying the launchpad in Sriharikota, building a mission control centre plus selecting and training the crew seems to be the easy part.

Recently, ISRO announced it will let private companies integrate 27 large orbiters. It is the only way to get enough manpower, says Mohanty. “ISRO should have begun privatising routine activities such as satellite fabrication and PSLV rocket assembly at least a decade ago. It should focus on R&D and new areas such as planetary exploration and human space flight. Plus, some of its budget should be allocated to providing a robust financial ecosystem to support entrepreneurial ventures leading to job creation and innovation.”

Meanwhile, attempts to monetise ISRO’s expertise have borne fruit, too. Antrix Corporation, the agency’s commercial arm, has found favour in the global satellite launch market and kept the revenue counter ticking. Since 1999, it has placed in orbit 239 foreign satellites for customers from 28 countries. For the financial year that ended March 31, 2017, Antrix reported an income of Rs1,991 crore (pdf).

AMID INDIA’s preparations for a manned space mission, the recent failure of a Russian rocket launch has served a reminder of the perils and technological challenges involved in every space flight. The fact that both astronauts on board survived the failure, on the other hand, has been hailed as an example that underlines the safety measures that were in place. How are Indian scientists progressing on astronaut safety?

On October 11, the failure of the Russian rocket Soyuz FG led to the abortion of Expedition 57 to the International Space Station. gas house gang On board the Soyuz MS 10 mission were Alexey Ovchinin of Roscosmos and Nick Hague of NASA. When the failure was detected at an altitude of 50 km, an emergency operation was carried out to separate the crew module. The astronauts landed on Earth some 402 km from the launch site at the Russian Baikonur cosmodrome.

“We are now moving rockets from a mission-critical nature to a safety-critical launch nature, where the human being comes into play in a rocket — where human life becomes more important. We need to build safety critical features into rockets,” S Somnath, director of ISRO’s Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, said recently while providing an overview of ISRO’s early plans. Somnath is a key figure in the development of the GSLV Mk III rocket, which will be used for the manned mission.

“The crew escape system is crucial to the mission. The principle here is that you can have a less reliable rocket but you need a highly reliable crew escape system,” Somnath said. “The most important part of a human space flight is the ability to detect an imminent danger and take action to abort the mission. We need to have systems for this. We need onboard intelligence to see what is happening around and take action if anomalies develop.”

A NASA manual on human ratings of space systems, available in the public domain, underlines the difference between the development of systems for human space flights and missions with robotic payloads. “A human-rated system accommodates human needs, effectively utilizes human capabilities, controls hazards and manages safety risk associated with human spaceflight, and provides, to the maximum extent practical, the capability to safely recover the crew from hazardous situations,” states the NASA procedural requirements document for human ratings of space systems.

Like ISRO, private space agencies like Elon Musk’s SpaceX and Boeing are working to develop human-rated systems that can be certified by 2019. SpaceX’s efforts to get a human ratings certification for its Falcon 9 (Block 5) rocket — which experienced an explosion on the launchpad in 2016 — offer insight on the technical challenges. “The rocket has to be designed to 25% above the worst case of the expected load in the case of a satellite launcher. For a human-rated launcher, it has to be designed 40% above the worst-case loads. That’s really difficult to do without making the rocket really heavy. That’s hardcore stuff,” Musk said in May, after the successful launch of a Falcon 9 rocket with improvements meant for human ratings certifications, such as higher heat resistance and backup electronics.

Somnath says the GSLV was designed keeping in mind human flight in the future, so it will not need major tweaking. “When the GSLV Mk III was designed in the 2000-2002 time-frame, one of the important aspects that we mentioned was that it must ultimately become a vehicle that takes a human to space. We were directed to keep the design conditions in such a way that acceleration, reliability, safety, vibration and other aspects are all addressed right at the design stage. jokes gas prices This is why we are confidently speaking of a human space flight,” Dr Somnath said recently.

“The GSLV Mk III is an intelligent system with built-in redundancies, but for a final human rating the redundancies needed are of a higher order. We are working on it,” he said. “Various aspects of this have already been addressed — the environment, the margins on the hardware, the interface with the launchpad, the redundancy on board and the checking out and clearing the rocket for launch. We are now discussing the algorithms that will go inside in terms of instrumentation and process in a computer and see if we can abort a mission without causing damage to the crew. This aspect is under review and we will be coming out with an architecture where the time-span available is so short.”

While ISRO is confident, some experts have sounded a note of caution. “Any serious follower of ISRO’s programme will understand the huge divide which exists between projections and reality in space technology and space processes. Space operations being glamorous can hide failures against the backdrop of stunning successes,” Air Vice Marshal (retd) Pankaj Tyagi said at an event last month. “While creating perceptions and hype through media management is very important to inspire people, it is also important to reduce knowledge gaps and optimise resources, especially when a human is on board a rocket.”

A. Actually, it’s not simply about sending a man into space. The entire country’s understanding of science and technology will rise. gas house edwards It will inspire youngsters to do something new and encourage them to participate in science programmes. This particular project has many institutions and industries associated with it. In that sense, it is not just an ISRO project, but a national one. Every Indian agency involved can showcase its skills and the nation can be proud that, in science and technology, we are equal to the developed countries.

A. Whatever technology we have is about launching satellites. But when we launch a human, apart from the engineering and technical aspects, the human element, life sciences, also come in. We have to ensure that the human inside the module is safe and all conditions are similar to those on Earth. Simulating such conditions and creating such an environment is a challenge for us, it is new to us. We have already tried some of these activities, such as environment control and life support systems. gas vs electric water heater cost per year We have also done a lot of studies on space suits. Now we need to enhance it.

A. It is not necessary that he or she be a fighter pilot. Anybody can go, provided they are psychologically, physically and mentally fit. Of course, the endurance of fighter pilots will be better than that of others. But we are working on how to select and train them. The Institute of Aerospace Medicine in Bengaluru has the facilities for training astronauts. They had done a similar thing for Rakesh Sharma. But we will need more rigorous training and may have to build capacities for that. Given the target set by the prime minister, 2022, we may need international collaboration and the use of outside facilities and systems.

A. We already have the capabilities for this. Our GSLV Mark III heavy lift launcher is capable of lifting 10 tonnes of payload into orbit, whereas our space orbiter will weigh only around seven tonnes. While launching regular satellites, our main criteria is maximum payload. But for the manned mission, maximum safety matters more. So the launch vehicle system has to be a human-rated version and we will ensure it is failsafe.

A. We have already built and tested the crew escape system. gas leak chicago It’s not only during the launch, if there is an exigency or danger to the astronauts at any time during the flight, the module will be ejected from the launch vehicle, away from the danger zone. This involves quick-reacting solid motors and a system to stabilise the vehicle. We have also tested the module for re-entry and recovery after splashdown into the sea, including protecting it from high temperatures and pressures when it re-enters the atmosphere on its return.

A. We want to do a couple of end-to-end tests before we launch the orbiter with astronauts. We will have two rehearsal flights to test the environment and life-support systems as well as protection from extreme temperature and pressure variations, apart from galactic cosmic rays and micro-meteorites that may impact the orbiter. We will also do a splashdown of the orbiter. We have to ensure everything is perfect.