Intensive and extensive properties – wikipedia bp gas prices chicago


Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes. According to IUPAC, an intensive quantity is one whose magnitude is independent gas leak chicago of the size of the system [1] whereas an extensive quantity is one whose magnitude is additive for subsystems. [2] This reflects the corresponding mathematical ideas of mean and measure, respectively.

An intensive property is a bulk property, meaning that it is a local physical property of a system that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system. Examples of intensive properties include temperature, T; refractive index, n; density, ρ; and hardness of an object, η. In hardness, when electricity wiki a diamond is cut, the pieces maintain their intrinsic hardness, so hardness is independent of the size of the system while the size, number or total area of the diamond pieces is not.

By contrast, an extensive property is additive for subsystems. [3] This means the system could be divided into any number of subsystems electricity projects for 4th graders, and the extensive property measured for each subsystem; the value of the property for the system would be the sum of the property for each subsystem. For example, both the mass, m, and the volume, V, of a diamond are directly proportional to the amount that is left after cutting it from the raw mineral.

More generally properties can be combined to give new properties, which may electricity cost las vegas be called derived or composite properties. For example, the base quantities [9] mass and volume can be combined to give the derived quantity [10] density. These composite properties can also be classified as intensive or extensive. Suppose a composite property F {\displaystyle F} is a function of a set of intensive properties { a i } {\displaystyle \{a_{i}\}} and a set of extensive properties { A j } {\displaystyle \{A_{j}\}} , which can be shown as F ( { a i } , { A j } ) {\displaystyle F(\{a_{i}\},\{A_{j}\})} . If the size of the system is changed by some scaling factor, α {\displaystyle \alpha } , only e suvidha electricity bill lucknow the extensive properties will change, since intensive properties are independent of the size of the system. The scaled system, then, can be represented as F ( { a i } , { α A j } ) {\displaystyle F(\{a_{i}\},\{\alpha A_{j}\})} .

It follows, for example, that the ratio of two extensive properties is an intensive property. To illustrate, consider a system having a certain mass, m {\displaystyle m} , and volume, V {\displaystyle V} . The 66 gas station density, ρ {\displaystyle \rho } is equal to mass (extensive) divided by volume (extensive): ρ = m V {\displaystyle \rho ={\frac {m}{V}}} . If the system is scaled by the factor α {\displaystyle \alpha } , then the mass and volume become α m {\displaystyle \alpha m} and α V {\displaystyle \alpha V} , and the density becomes ρ = α m α V {\displaystyle \rho ={\frac electricity billy elliot {\alpha m}{\alpha V}}} ; the two α {\displaystyle \alpha } s cancel, so this could be written mathematically as ρ ( α m , α V ) = ρ ( m , V ) {\displaystyle \rho (\alpha m,\alpha V)=\rho (m,V)} , which is analogous to the equation for F {\displaystyle F} above.

A specific property is the intensive property obtained by dividing an extensive property of a system by its mass. For example, heat capacity is an extensive property of a system. Dividing heat capacity, C p, by the mass of the system gives the specific heat capacity, c p, which is an intensive property. When the t gastrobar el tenedor extensive property is represented by an upper-case letter, the symbol for the corresponding intensive property is usually represented electricity billy elliot broadway by a lower-case letter. Common examples are given in the table below. [3] Specific properties derived from extensive properties

If the amount of substance in moles can be determined, then each of these thermodynamic properties may be expressed on a molar basis, and their name may be qualified with the adjective molar, yielding terms such as molar volume, molar internal energy, molar enthalpy, and molar entropy. The symbol for molar gas stoichiometry practice quantities may be indicated by adding a subscript m to the corresponding extensive property. For example, molar enthalpy is H m. [3] Molar Gibbs free energy is commonly referred to as chemical potential, symbolized by μ, particularly when discussing a partial molar Gibbs free energy μ i for a component i in a mixture.

The general validity of the division of physical properties into extensive and intensive kinds has been addressed in the course of science. [12] Redlich noted that, although physical properties and especially thermodynamic properties are most conveniently defined as either electricity and circuits class 6 questions intensive or extensive, these two categories are not all-inclusive and some well-defined physical properties conform to neither definition. [5] Redlich also provides examples of mathematical functions that alter the strict additivity relationship for extensive systems, such as the square or square root of volume, which may occur in some contexts, albeit rarely used. [5]

Other systems, for which standard definitions do not provide a simple answer electricity voltage in germany, are systems in which the subsystems interact when combined. Redlich pointed out that the assignment of some properties as intensive or extensive may depend on the way subsystems are electricity 220 volts wiring arranged. For example, if two identical galvanic cells are connected in parallel, the voltage of the system is equal to the voltage of each cell, while the electric charge transferred (or the electric current) is extensive. However, if the same cells are connected in series, the charge becomes intensive and the voltage extensive. [5] The IUPAC definitions do not consider such cases. [3]