Iq and the wealth of nations – wikipedia electricity merit badge requirements


For 104 of the 185 nations, no studies were available. In those cases, the authors have used an estimated value by taking averages of the IQs of neighboring or comparable nations. For example, the authors arrived at a figure of 84 for El Salvador by averaging their calculations of 79 for Guatemala and 88 for Colombia. Including those estimated IQs, the correlation of IQ and GDP is 0.62.

In some cases, the IQ of a country is estimated by averaging the IQs of countries that are not actually neighbors of the country in question. For example, Kyrgyzstan’s IQ is estimated by averaging the IQs of Iran gas x ultra strength directions and Turkey, neither of which is close to Kyrgyzstan—China, which is a geographic neighbor, is not counted as such by Lynn and Vanhanen. This is because ethnic background is assumed to be more important than proximity to other nations when determining national IQ.

One example of this was Qatar, whose IQ was estimated by Lynn and Vanhanen to be about 78, yet had a disproportionately high per capita GDP of roughly USD $17,000. The authors explain Qatar’s disproportionately high GDP by its high petroleum resources. Similarly, the authors think that large resources of diamonds explain the economic growth of the African nation Botswana, the fastest in the world for several decades.

The authors argued that the People’s Republic of China’s per capita GDP of at the time f gas logo roughly USD $4,500 could be explained by its use of a communist economic system for much of its recent history. The authors also predicted that communist nations whom they believe have comparatively higher IQs, including China and North Korea, can be expected to rapidly gain GDP growth by moving from centrally planned economies to more capitalist based economic systems, while predicting continued poverty for sub-Saharan African nations no matter what gas bubble in throat economic systems are used.

Several negative reviews of the book have been published in the scholarly literature. Susan Barnett and Wendy Williams wrote that we see an edifice built on layer upon layer of arbitrary assumptions and selective data manipulation. The data on which the entire book is based are of questionable validity and are used in ways that cannot be justified. They also wrote that cross country comparisons are virtually meaningless. [4]

Richardson (2004) argued, citing the Flynn effect as the best evidence, that Lynn has the causal connection backwards and suggested that the average IQ of a population is simply an index of the size of its middle class, both of which are results of industrial development. The review 76 gas card login concludes that This is not so much science, then, as a social crusade. [3] A review by Michael Palairet criticized the book’s methodology, particularly the imprecise estimates of GDP and the fact that IQ data were only available for 81 of the 185 countries studied. However, the review concluded that the book was a powerful challenge to economic historians and development economists who prefer not to use IQ as an analytical input, but that it’s likely those scholars will deliberately ignore this work instead of improving it. [5] By economists [ edit ]

Writing in the Economic Journal, Astrid Oline Ervik said that the book may be thought provoking, but there is nothing that economists can learn from it. She criticized the book’s authors for not establishing cross country comparability and reliability of IQ scores, for relying on simple bivariate correlations, for not considering or controlling for other hypotheses, and for confusing correlation with causation. Ervik stated, The arguments put forward in the book to justify such comparisons [between the average IQ in different countries and their GDP] seem at best vague and unconvincing. At worst gas appliance manufacturers association, passages in the book appear to be biased and unscientific…The authors fail to present convincing evidence and appear to jump to conclusions. [7]

Some criticisms have focused on the limited number of studies upon which the book is based. The IQ figures are based on 3 different studies, one study in 34 nations, and two studies in 30 nations. There were actual tests for IQ in 81 nations. For 104 nations there were no IQ studies at all and IQ was estimated based on IQ in surrounding nations. [2] The limited number of participants in some studies has also been criticized. A test of 108 9- to 15-year-olds in Barbados, of 50 13- to 16-year-olds in Colombia, of 104 5- to 17-year-olds in Ecuador, of 129 6- to 12-year-olds in Egypt, and of 48 10- to 14-year-olds in Equatorial Guinea, all were taken as measures of national IQ. [3]

Denny Borsboom argued that mainstream contemporary test analysis does not reflect substantial recent developments in the field and bears an uncanny resemblance to the psychometric state of the art as it existed in the 1950s. For example, he argued that IQ and the Wealth of Nations, in order to show that the tests are unbiased, uses gas mileage comparison outdated methodology – if anything, indicative that test bias exists. [10] Girma Berhanu, in an essay review of the book, concentrated on the discussion of Ethiopian Jews. The review criticized the principal assertion of the authors that differences in intelligence, attributed to genetics, account for the gap between rich and poor countries. Berhanu criticized the book as being based in a racist, sexist, and antihuman research tradition and alleged that the low standards of scholarship evident in the book render it largely irrelevant for modern science. [11]

In addition, some people have argued that Lynn deliberately ignored samples or studies that found higher IQs in sub-Saharan Africa, and only used data that provided especially low IQs. For example, in one study from Nigeria that involved seven samples, Lynn only used 4 gases in the atmosphere results from the two lowest scoring samples. Lynn did not provide an explanation about why the 5 highest scoring samples were ignored. [12] Impact on psychology [ edit ]

In 2006, Lynn and Vanhanen followed IQ and the Wealth wireless electricity how it works of Nations with their book IQ and Global Inequality, which contained additional data and analyses, but the same general conclusions as the earlier book. Discussing both books, Earl Hunt writes that although Lynn and Vanhanen’s methodology and conclusions are questionable, they deserve credit for raising important questions about international IQ comparisons. Hunt writes that Lynn and Vanhanen are correct that national IQs correlate strongly with measures of social well-being, but they are unjustified in their rejection of the idea that national IQs could change as a result of improved education. [13] See also [ edit ]