Is commercial cellulosic ethanol a reality_

A few people have asked if I can reproduce more of my Forbes columns here, because they don’t like wading through the ads there to get to the content. Electricity bill payment hyderabad This week I wrote an update on the progress toward cellulosic ethanol commercialization, and given my previous coverage on the topic (especially Why I Don’t Ride a Unicorn to Work) this seems like an appropriate subject to discuss here.

Last week the U.S. Electricity physics problems Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that during the first quarter of 2016, just over 1 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol were produced. Gas 89 In fact, production for the month of March jumped 64% from the previous month to 446,000 gallons produced, the highest levels of the modern era. Electricity in salt water Production this year is well ahead of the pace in 2015, when 2.2 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol were produced for the entire year.

Before addressing that, let’s review a couple of terms. O gosh corpus christi For the purpose of this discussion a renewable fuel is one that is derived from recently living biomass (as opposed to fossil fuels, which are derived from “ancient” biomass). T gastrobar First generation renewable fuels (aka “biofuels”) are those made in large volume today, such as ethanol produced from corn and sugarcane, and biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. Gas 101 Of the 34 billion gallons of biofuel produced in 2014, 97% of the total was via first generation ethanol (74%) or biodiesel (23%) processes.

Second generation biofuels, also commonly known as “advanced biofuels”, generally fall into one of two categories. Gas in stomach Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), also known as “green diesel”, is produced from hydrotreating technology utilizing the same kinds of feedstocks that are used to make conventional biodiesel. Year 6 electricity unit Instead of reacting the feedstocks with methanol as in the conventional biodiesel process, they are reacted with hydrogen. Gas hydrates ppt The products of this reaction are diesel-length hydrocarbons — green diesel — and propane (as compared to glycerin as the biodiesel byproduct). Electricity and magnetism study guide answers About 3% of the world’s 2014 biofuel volume was produced via this method.

The technology hurdle for green diesel is higher than for biodiesel, and as a result there are fewer players. Gas bubbles in colon The global leader is Finland’s Neste Oil, although there are a handful of other players. Electricity transformer near house The single biggest feedstock to date for this process has been palm oil, but this feedstock has also been highly criticized for environmental reasons. Ogasco abu dhabi (There is another category of green diesel that involves gasification of biomass followed by the Fischer Tropsch reaction to produce hydrocarbons, but there are no commercial plants in operation).

The second category of advanced biofuel is the one presently of greatest interest in the U.S., and that is cellulosic ethanol. Speedy q gas station Conventional ethanol production utilizes a fermentation process to convert starches or simple sugars to ethanol. Electricity and water Cellulose is an important structural material for plants, and it is made up of many repeating sugar units. Gas x dosage pregnancy These repeating sugar units can be broken down by various processes into the component sugars, which can then be fermented into ethanol. Grade 9 electricity questions The process of breaking down cellulose into sugars was discovered in France in the 1800′s, and cellulosic ethanol production was first commercialized in Germany in 1898. Gas constant in atm Commercialization in the U.S. Gas prices in texas followed in 1910, but the process was ultimately abandoned for economic reasons.

Up to this point, the advanced biofuel sector has proved to be a good way for investors to lose money. Electricity usage by state While there aren’t any publicly-traded companies whose focus is primarily cellulosic ethanol, there are a number of companies that have already gone bankrupt, or are in the process of doing so, by trying to produce advanced renewable hydrocarbons that can compete with oil. Grade 9 current electricity test KiOR is probably the most famous publicly-traded example, going from an IPO that valued the company at $1.5 billion in 2011 to being bankrupt in 2014. Gas near me prices Other companies that have competed in the advanced renewable hydrocarbon space have seen 90% or greater losses since their IPO (e.g., Solazyme, Gevo, Amyris).

The layman’s explanation for the reason is pretty simple. Electricity pictures Advanced biofuels are attempting to compete with petroleum, but the reality is that with petroleum, nobody had to plant or harvest the biomass, and nobody had to apply the heat and pressure to convert it into an energy-dense liquid fuel. Gas works park With biofuels, you have inputs of energy and manpower at every step — and the cost of those inputs adds up. Grade 6 electricity unit ontario That’s why petroleum made from ancient algae can be produced for a couple of dollars per gallon, but renewable petroleum produced from algae can be more than 10 times that cost. Q mart gas station That’s why you don’t see any large-scale algal biofuel operations.

Circling back to the opening paragraph, which companies are responsible for this year’s cellulosic ethanol production? Over the past couple of years, several companies have announced the startup of plants. Gas in spanish The key players have been:

• INEOS – Startup of its Indian River BioEnergy Center in Florida was announced in 2012 with nameplate capacity of 8 million gallons per year.

• Quad County Corn Processors – Announced first production in July 2014; claims their process is producing 2 million gallons per year from corn kernel fiber.

• POET – Project LIBERTY plant in Emmetsburg, Iowa startup was announced in September 2014. Q card gas station Capacity was announced at 25 million gallons per year, and later downgraded to 20 million gallons with the potential for 25.

• DuPont – Announced start up in October 2015 of its $225 million plant in Nevada, Iowa with a nameplate capacity of 30 million gallons per year.

From published reports, it appears that the INEOS facility isn’t producing any ethanol, and Abengoa shut down its plant last December and then declared bankruptcy. Gas under 3 dollars Quad County is sort of a wild card, as its potential seems to be limited to a small amount of residual ethanol production at existing corn ethanol plants.

It would appear that most of the current cellulosic ethanol production is coming from POET and DuPont. I have electricity in my body I suspect that the jump in production in March was DuPont working out some of the kinks in their process. Electricity lesson plans 8th grade Still, if one assumes that the production is all coming from those two companies, March’s record production only amounts to about 10% of the combined nameplate capacity of the plants.

Thus, whether we are now entering the realm of “commercial” cellulosic ethanol production really depends on how that term is defined. Astrid y gaston lima menu english If commercial means production that can stand on its own and compete in the marketplace, the answer to that is still “No.” That will remain the case until you see companies like DuPont building new cellulosic ethanol plants following their experience with the first one. Gas lighting If anyone can do it DuPont can, but I wouldn’t place any bets on that just yet.

With technology and value analysis like this, the airplane would never have developed. Static electricity bill nye Nor solar panels, hydrogen fuel cell, light bulbs, and petrol fracking.

Poet and Dupont are going through the final days of plant commissioning. Gas x dosage for dogs That’s the production shake down time to debug. Electricity physics formulas It includes modifications, redesign, invention to prevent bottle necks, break downs, trouble spots, and improve quality control. Electricity online games Jeff Broin had been interviewed that the feed stock was dirtier than anticipated, material handling was a bottleneck, and some of the equipment wasn’t holding up to corrosion elements. Gas engine efficiency All in all he claimed this phase was going better than first generation corn ethanol production plants. Gas vs diesel truck I remember him telling of family history upon his father purchasing a defunct ethanol plant after Jimmy Carter days. 66 gas station near me The time and money the family had to spend to bring the plant into full production was indeed a high hurdle. Electricity physics test Although, the corn starch process is simple as compared to cellulosic, even to this day modern plants are inventing and improving output, cost, and quality of fuel and coproducts. Gas oil ratio for leaf blower It was no surprise to these plant owners that the commissioning stage of production would take some time. Electricity 1 unit how many watts It’s not like their throwing all their assets to the cause. Static electricity jokes Meaning the ethanol market is pretty much saturated and profits down such as the oil industry currently distressed. Gas used in ww1 Broin did say the production would ramp up all through this year and hit full production. A shell gas station near me The low trajectory of production was anticipated and more of a factor of rate of improvement, not an indicator that all is hopeless.

I read a article that Quad county and business partners have combined to offer corn starch plants process abilities to produce 20% more ethanol from the same corn kernel input. Gas vs electric stove top This includes the home grown or farmer grown natural enzymes corn feed stock that makes it all possible. Electricity quiz grade 9 Much of it cellulosic, some of it better or higher efficiency of starch conversion, and the rest high protein animal feed supplement and more corn oil. Electricity usage calculator south africa Ethanol process plants will probably get out of the DDG market as the cellulose component not that valuable for retail sale as compared to cellulosic conversion. Gas chamber The distillery yeast and vital feed elements of corn kernel a better coproduct for high value retail sales.

Also, they may have figured out how to improve cleanliness of feed stock. Up electricity bill payment online Farmers last I heard are hooking up baler to combine every 3rd or 4th row to keep corn left overs from hitting the dirt.

How the gov’t awards supplemental funds to R&D work is a bigger topic than biofuel. Electricity and magnetism purcell pdf It is played loose, depending on politics, popularity, and priorities. Electricity manipulation Each administration sets the bar with priorities. Jokes gas prices I remember back when gov’t funds were shuffled about the demand was for gov’t agency’s not to pick the winners as they have miserable track record in doing so. Gas laws definition chemistry All in all with the colossal state of waste, fraud, and abuse the biofuel investments not very big potatoes. Gas density calculator I guess chalk it up to creative destruction. Electricity el paso apartments Much good comes out of these failures. Youtube gas pedal dance Lots of talent that hasn’t forgotten the problems, science, and technology. Wd gaster cosplay Some of these people will continue the struggle in other venues and will contribute greatly to the cause. Electricity year 4 Much of this happen back in Jimmy Carter Gasohol days when the present day industry thanked all the talent that learned hard lessons back then that presently contribute greatly. E85 gas stations in ohio Most of them industry leaders.

New technology especially disruptive have many barriers to fruition, such as the audit report lists. Gasco abu dhabi address You must understand that every venture was supported by a group of very motivated true believers that put careers and investments in the mix. Mp electricity bill payment online indore That the technology and science was correct. Gas oil ratio for weed eater These failures always occur from a wide array of problems and usually from critical problem such as time, money, and quality. Gas 0095 download Meaning the technology wasn’t fool’s gold errand to garner the public’s tax money. Gas efficient cars under 10000 Efforts such as these require foundation commitments that the U.S. Nyc electricity cost per kwh is opposed to. Gas monkey cast We want high investment with quick results. Gas laws worksheet answers and work Japanese have a long term sustainable commitment to technology such as the solar panel, fuel cell, hybrid cars, etc.. Electricity towers health risks The U.S. Wikipedia electricity consumption has excellent collaboration with funding from business and University for R&D work. Electricity use in the us That Enogen corn enzyme was a result of such at Michigan State. E85 gas stations in houston The business model for success per our tax and financial climate is to hype hype hype and attract max funding from private and public treasury. Gas unlimited The attention span of most is just to short and most hate the technical aspects. Electricity generation capacity They want to stare at the bright shiny object and dream.