Isiscb cumulative bibliography. volume 4 gas quality by brand


Volumes 4 and 5 of the Isis Cumulative Bibliography, like their predecessors, comprise references that were published in the Critical Bibliographies nos. 1–90. printed in Isis during the period 1913–65. They contain all those entries that deal with the history of science or of individual sciences during a particular period or civilization. gas calculator As explained in the Introduction to Volumes 1 and 2, the Isis Cumulative Bibliography is basically a cumulation of the Isis Critical Bibliographies rather than a fully comprehensive guide to the literature of the history of science; nevertheless, it should provide more extensive and detailed coverage of the subject than is elsewhere available. Although incomplete references have been amplified and verified, no attempt has been made to add significantly t the number of entries. On the other hand, not all titles originally listed in the Critical Bibliographies have been included. The range of subjects covered during those years changed so greatly that the aim has been to exclude entries that would no longer be included in the present annual bibliographies, unless they were followed by a lengthy and significant annotation in the original Isis issue.

Much that is written on the history of sicence deals with particular personalities and these two volumes would have been quite unrepresentative if they had not included reference to them. All the entries dealing with a particular personality were, of course, included in Volumes 1 and 2 in an alphabetical sequence. In Volumes 4 and 5 reference has been made to them under their respective periods and subjects and where the subject of the entry was very specific it has been repeated under the relevant section.

The arrangement of the civilizations and periods and of the subjects follows fairly closely that used in the current Isis Critical Bibliographies. The main difference is that, although the headings are similar, the arrangement under these is not in alphabetical order of authors, but in the order of the much more detailed classification needed to locate specific information through the subject index. There is no need for the user to understand the classification scheme unless he wishes to do so. A Guide to Users is on page xi; an explanatory note on the subject and aspect classification may be found on page 621 in Volume 3, and the full schedules are on page 447 in this volume. Here it is only necessary to say a word on the order of civilizations and periods. The arrangement of subjects and aspects is the same under each period section and follows that used in volume 3 (Subjects). In the earlier periods and oriental civilizations a brief general section notated by the digits indicating them followed by the aspect subdivisions precedes the arrangement by subject.

The table of contents list the order of civilizations and periods adopted. Although based on the present chronological classification in the Isis Critical Bibliographies, it makes the division into Western and Near Eastern civilizations on the one hand and Eastern and early American civilizations on the other more explicit. The notation for the civilization/period facet is numeral, consisting of one or two digits. electricity manipulation To determine the order, which is not hierarchical, a decimal point must be imagined after the first digit.

The schedule begins with prehistory in general (1), including the prehistory and early civilizations in Europe, followed by the prehistory and ancient civilizations in the Near East and Mediterranean (15). The next main section covers the prehistory and indigenous civilizations of Asia (except the Near East) (3), subdivided into large geographical areas representing the different cultures, followed by those of Africa (excluding North Africa) (46) and America (47). When these have become fused with Western cultures they are treated like the rest of modern knowledge, a term from the w section of the aspect schedules (national histories) being added. The only anomalies concern the countries of Western Asia. Their ancient history is included among the ancient civilizations in the Near East and in mediaeval times most of them are classed under Islam (54), but when treated generally over all periods they are classed under Western Asia (32).

A departure has been made from the arrangement inthe Isis Critical Bibliographies by having only a general prehistory section and classing the prehistory of each area under that area; for example, the prehistory of China is classed under China and that of Egypt under Ancient Egypt. Also, unlike the Isis arrangement where the history of the Ancient World is divided into two sections (the ‘Near East’ and ‘Classical Antiquity’, the latter including also material on the ancient world in general), the main section 15 is a general one dealing with the prehistory and ancient history of the Near East and the Mediterranean area, subdivided into several sections followed by one on classical antiquity (25). There are no separate sections on ancient China and India, material on these being classed under Asia in 4 and 37, respectively. 8 gas laws Section 15 concludes with a subdivision (29) on Christian civilizations that are too early to include in the Middle Ages.

A general section (49) has been introduced between the non-Western civilizations (3) and the main section on the Middle Ages (5), in which are classed titles that deal with the Ancient World and the Middle Ages combined. In the Isis Critical Bibliographies these titles are at present classed unde the general section; but as this cumulation is based on the principle that the general sections (that is, the sections to which the civilization/period facet is not applicable) include only general material that brings the history of the subject into the modern period, it seems more appropriate that such titles should be classed in 49.

All material on mediaeval Latin Europe is included in the section on the Middle Ages (5), Subdivisione are: Byzantium (52), Armenia (53), Islam (54) and Jewish Mediaeval culture in the Islamic world (55). In section 58 is classed material that refers to both the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Renaissance (6) not only covers the period 1450–1600 (as in the Isis Critical Bibliographies) but has been extended to include the fifteenth century generally. After 1600 the division is by

In my introduction to Volumes 1 and 2 and Volume 3 respectively I acknowledged my indebtedness to all those who made the production of those volumes possible. Here I want to confine myself to mention those who supported the project financially in the production of Volumes 4 and 5, or from whose assistance I specially benefited in the work on these Volumes, although I am also greatly indebated to all those whose help I acknowledged in the introductions to Volumes I and 2 and Volume 3, since without their assistance the project could never have been realized. I am grateful to the History of Science Society, the sponsors of the project, particularly Professor John C. Greene, Dr Arthur Norberg and Professor John Neu, Chairman of the Editorical Committee, for their support. I am greatly indebated to the Societies and Foundations who have given generous financial assistance: the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Royal Society of London, the British Academy, the british Library, the wellcome Trust and Imperial Chemical Industries Limited. I owe a great debt of gratitude to the Librarian of Imperial College, Mr Adrian Whitworth, for housing the project during the last five years and for the kindness shown to me and my helpers by him and his staff.

My thanks are due to my assistants, Mrs Felicity Secretan, Mr Frank James and Mrs Gunnel Ingham, the last in particular for her help in the preparation of the Index. I am most grateful to them for the devotion with which they carried outtheir duties. My thanks are also due to the many libraries and their staff who have allowed us to use their resources, in particular the Science Museum Library, the Library of the Wellcome Institution and the Library of the School of Oriental and African Studies.

I should like to record my gratitude to all those scholars who have given freely advice on the particular civilizations and periods which are their speciality: Miss P. Bateman, Dr A. C. Crombie, Dr R. C. gas and electric phone number Gupta, Professor A. R. Hall and Dr Marie Boas Hall, Dr A. Z. Iskander, Dr A. gas number density G. Keller, Mr J. C. H. King, Dr J. B. Mack, Mr R. Miller, Dr J. Mitchener, Dr A. G. Molland, Dr J. Needham and his staff Miss A. Logan Smith, Mrs.D Starzecka, Mr C. B. F. Walker and Professor M. electricity usage by country Watanabe. Last but not least I want to thank once again my husband, Professor G. J. Whitrow, not only for his help with the sections on mathematics, astronomy

Although the Bibliography has been arranged in a systematic sequence, it is not necessary for the user to try to understand the way in which the classification scheme has been constructed. The table of contents which lists the order of the civilizations and periods should be a sufficient guide to those who wish to browse. They will also be helped by the running headings on the inner corners of each page which indicates the main period and subject. The arrangement of subjects is the same under each period section and folows that used in Volume 3 (Subjects); a list of main subject headings used in this volume, together with a list of form and aspect subdivisions follows. The full schedules may be found at the end of Volume 4. To avoid fragmentation in presentation, the subheadings have been omitted unless the number of entries renders them desirable. Classmarks are given to enable those who require information on a particular topic to go direct from the subject index (at the end of Volume 5), to the relevant entries. If the topic is very specific, there may be no entry under it in the index because there is no special section on the topic in the Bibliography. gas zauberberg In that case, reference should be made to a more general heading. For example, although the word ‘copper’ does not appear in the index there may be information on its history in the sections on ‘metals’ or ‘metallurgy’. gas efficient cars 2016 Having found the code or classmark (a sequence of numbers and letters) in the index, the user should turn to the body of the Bibliography. The code in the left-hand upper corner of each page is the classmark of the first item on the page, whereas that in the right-hand upper corner refers to the last item. Some classmarks may seem lengthy (necessitated by the number of concepts represented), but to find the required entry very often it will only be necessary to remember or note down the digits and the first two letters.

The codes in this volume are composed of numbers (never more than two), and capital and lower case letters. The numbers represent the civilizations and periods, the capital letters A-Y the main subject divisions, and the lower case letters a-x the form and aspect subdivisions; y is used to form compound subjects, z for extending the subject alphabetically. It must be emphasized that, although the codes form a shorthand analysis of the contents of the entry, the nottion does not reflect he hierarchy of the classification; it is ordinal. Frequently, the number represents a main period division or on capital letter a main subject, but this is not always the case. Thus 15 stands for the Ancient Near East, yet the subsection Israel is denoted by 2. Similarly, although earth sciences has a two letter code FZ, meteorology is represented by G.

capital letters so that 15 (1.5) files before 2 and Bce (B.ce) files before BAce (BA.ce). The hyphen, which is used to separate two sets of codes, is considered life a stop in filing. Usually, the numerals are followed by capital letters, succeeded where necessary by lower case letters, but in the earlier periods and most of the oriental civilizations where there is a small amount of general material preceding the subject section the numerals are followed by lower case letters and these codes file before those in which the numerals are followed by capitals.