Journal of nuclear physics electricity voltage in india


The main task of research reactors is to provide a source of neutrons for research and other purposes, and the process of their hp gas producing in the form of beams can be different depending on the purposes. The range of tasks that are set before these installations is wide, including analysis and testing of materials, production of radioisotopes. Among the applications are nuclear power, nuclear fusion researches, environmental studies, the development of new materials, the development of drugs and nuclear medicine.

As a rule, in such reactors circuits with forced cooling of the reactor core by the coolant pumped by pumps are used, but low-power reactors sometimes use a circuit with natural circulation of the heat carrier, for example, in the reactor IR-200 (Sevastopol, Crimea). Despite electricity transmission efficiency the advantages of the passive principle of reactor core cooling, it is practically not used because of the disadvantages of the circuits with lifting motion of the coolant in the core. Moreover, these schemes of heat removal from the reactor can not be called completely passive, since a secondary circuit with forced movement of the coolant is used.

After Andrea Rossi’s Heat Generator (E-cat) presentation with demonstrations of excess heat up to 600 % [1, 2] we have repeated gas after eating pasta such experiments with similar cell in Russia. As a result by us it has been received the considerable exit of neutrons (~500000) in serial and x-ray radiation [3, 4, 5, 6]. We presented them at the Russian annual Conferences on Cold Nuclear Transmutation [3, 4] and at the International Conference in Korea [6]. However electricity prices over time we didn’t find excess heat on these installations. Therefore we decided to return to a previous study of plasma electrolysis on the Fakel-1 installations [7] and the Fakel-2 [8,9], where we already had indications on existence of nuclear radiation and excess heat in this cell mode. On the modernized installation Fakel-3 with plasma electrolysis the convincing evidence of nuclear processes was obtained. It was provided by Erzion catalysis [10] with the large excess heat. The received results have provided the positive decision on our International patent [11]. Here we present the investigation results of plasma electrolysis with anode gas discharge in usual water. In our experiments there have electricity related words been used different nuclear calorimeter diagnostic methods. Numerous demonstrations of their nuclear nature have been obtained in full accordance with Cold Nuclear Transmutation Erzion Catalysis model predictions [12-17]. In much series there were regularly demonstrated large excess heat generations ( 700%). This can provide creating of ourself Russian E-Cat (Erzion Catalyzer) Heat Generator new perspective nuclear energetics.

So far, the common practice of radioactive waste treatment in Russia was controlled temporary storage – the so-called “procrastinated decision j gastroenterol”. In Russia, the total amount of accumulated liquid radioactive waste (hereinafter LRW) is 477 million, and 77 millions of solid radioactive waste. However, as the world and Russian practice shows, that the controlled storage of radioactive waste in the long term results their accumulation and is not acceptable as a strategy electricity notes pdf of RAW treatment. Such strategy does not lead to the final safe solution of the problem, but requires the permanent overhead costs without clear prospect [1].

Nowadays, mainly thermal and sorption methods are used for treatment of liquid radioactive waste. Using these methods, the main part of liquid radioactive waste, produced during the operation of nuclear installations of various purposes and other facilities using radioactive substances, is treated. These methods cannot be called electricity usage calculator original or specific for the treatment of radioactive waste (hereinafter RAW), because they were taken from various conventional industries and modified. Mainly these are methods, usually used in purification, treatment and desalination of water.

Practice of LRW treatment shows that the main source of problems in evaporation equipment are the heat exchange pipes. During the operation, their surface is covering inevitably by sediments, which have to be removed periodically by chemical washing, with interruption of the treatment process and at the same time with producing a large amount of secondary electricity outage san antonio LRW. This inevitability is caused by evaporator’s design including heat exchange tubes – the process of sedimentation of the tubes cannot be prevented, it can only be decreased by using different methods: increasing the circulation velocity in heat exchange tubes or addition of special chemicals additives. The inevitability of foam-and-droplets entrainment from the evaporator is also caused by its design, so the additional special equipment have to be used for steam and condensate purification from radionuclides. Moreover, it is necessary to perform periodically wd gaster battle the mechanical cleaning of heat exchange tubes which leads to important radiation doses to personnel.

The ideal comprehensive solution of the problem of LRW treatment is to create a continuous LRW evaporation technology with cementation of the concentrate at the same time, and the possible addition of used sorbents and sludge to the resulting cement compound. The main factor limiting the use of evaporation technology is a high gas definition physics energy costs, but with the appearance at energy market such installations as E-Cat, this problem disappears.