Lighting, alternative energy solutions for lighting, off grid lighting information gasket t 1995

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• Lighting fixtures and reflectors: The light fixture, which directs the light to the area needed, is often as important as the luminaire itself. With solar lanterns, the spread of the light is crucial to consumer acceptance. Most task lighting luminaires require some type of reflector to concentrate the light where it s needed. Good choice of reflectors reduces energy consumption.

Electric lamps are superior in most regards to fuel-based lamps. When grid electricity is available, candles, kerosene gas x strips after gastric sleeve lamps and gas lamps are unacceptable for most lighting tasks, barring for emergencies or aesthetic purposes. However, in off-grid situations, fuel-based lamps play a much more important role and have many advantages. They are already in wide use. They are portable. They have low incremental costs. Lanterns and fuels are widely available, and are often locally made. Therefore, planners should not completely discard these technologies to replace them with electric lights.

Optimum Situation: Fuel-based lighting technologies should be considered as a first choice only in situations where infrastructure for PV/RET systems is not available (i.e. no battery replacements) or where there gas oil ratio units is no capacity to meet the high first costs of PV/ RET systems. All off-grid situations should keep a few kerosene or LPG lanterns on hand as back-ups and/or as portable lighting systems. Option 2: DC Electric Lighting Systems

Electric lighting systems are superior to fuel-based lighting systems gas in back symptoms because of convenience, cost, safety and overall quality of light output. Small, 12 or 24V DC lighting systems are appropriate for systems of between 1 and 20 lights. They can cost-effectively be powered by lead-acid or nicad batteries recharged by PV, wind, and, in some cases, generator sets or central recharging stations. It is often economical to have a number of dispersed lighting systems rather than a central interconnected system. In general, DC lighting systems should use fluorescent-type light fixtures, as they are much more efficient than incandescent or halogen alternatives. Low-power incandescent lights (3-10 W) can be used for ambient lighting needs. Halogen lamps with reflectors are ideal task lights. Note that PV lighting systems electricity deregulation wikipedia must be properly sized, using the daily energy requirement. Wind turbines can also be used to power lighting systems.

• Component-based PV Lighting Systems. One advantage of PV-based lighting systems is that they can be built up on a modular basis over a period of time. Where financing is a constraint for project planners or consumers, they can buy systems in small pieces. For example, end-users can buy a 10 Wp module, a battery, a charge regulator and one or two lights, and expand the system eventually to power many more lights and radio gas vs diesel towing/TV appliances. When buying on a component basis, local manufacturers of lamps, charge regulators and batteries can also be used, thereby building an infrastructure for supply of spares. A 2 light starter system can be purchased in most parts of the world for under $250.

Optimum Situation: 12V PV lighting systems are best used in small off-grid institutions, commercial establishment and households. DC lighting systems can also power with black and q card gas station white TVs and radio/cassettes; however, when end-users desire larger appliances (videos, colour TVs, projectors) as well, it often makes sense to step up to 240 AC systems. Because of their simplicity and safety, 12V systems are nearly always better when technical expertise is limited on site. Example rural system types might include: Lighting for 4 rooms in a rural office or house, lighting for 6 classrooms, a laboratory and staff offices in a school. Option 3: 110/240 VAC Electric Lighting Systems

It may be economically viable in some situations (generally larger systems) to choose 240 or 110 VAC powered lighting systems. AC systems can transmit power long distances (unlike low voltage dc systems). For example, a hospital with 15-20 widely dispersed wards might find it easier to distribute 240 VAC power than to use low voltage DC. Secondly, AC power can run other standard appliances in addition to lights. Thirdly electricity load shedding, AC power systems and lighting fixtures do not need to be changed if the site is eventually connected to grid power. Finally, AC power systems easily deliver more power than 12 or 24VDC systems.

• Stand-Alone Generator (without batteries). When there are a large number of lighting points (50+), stand alone generators (petrol or diesel gensets) may be economically viable for a few hours each night, particularly when electricity production in chad there are other loads which are required occasionally (pumping, X-ray, computers – see also Audio-visuals). If the genset must be run more than a few hours, these systems are invariably an expensive solution. Note that in this system, the generator must be started up even if a few lights are needed.

• Generator plus Battery Charger/Inverter. When a genset q gases componen el aire has excess capacity, it may be a good idea to use a generator to charge batteries through an inverter/battery charger, and then to use the stored power to run lighting loads (in this case fluorescent lights should be used). For example, the genset might be needed for a pump or workshop during the day; it could charge batteries, and the batteries could run lights at night.

• PV/Hybrid System plus Charger/Inverter. Gensets can be used as back-ups to PV or RET power systems. In such situations, the generator would only be run when there was not enough solar/wind power. The advantage of this type electricity history united states of system is that the costs and size of the generator would be reduced. The disadvantage in this type of system is the increased complexity and higher up-front costs. A supplier would be able to recommend whether this type of system is viable.

Click on any of the icons below, or click here for further readings on off-grid lighting; or here for off-grid lighting supplier information. If you wish to go to the next module, click here for the Pumping Module (Number 2)of this Guidebook, or click on one of the other modules below. Click here for links to visit some good links to other Internet sites.