## Mac and cheese science_ what makes a thick sauce_ – scientific american

There’s nothing like your favorite comfort food after a long day, right? Maybe it’s beef stew, a really great salad or many people’s favorite—macaroni and cheese. Bp gas prices nj The sauce has to be just the right texture, though, or your noodles are either swimming—or just one big glob! So how can you get just the right texture? Get ready to invite some friends over to taste test. Grade 6 electricity unit test With this science activity you can be a scientist, a cook and a crowd-pleaser all at the same time!

Sauces cling to food and to our palates, but how do you get just the right thickness or stickiness? Scientists describe the thickness, or gooiness, of a fluid by its viscosity. Kd 7 electricity socks The more viscous a fluid is, the more it resists flow due to internal friction. Electricity freedom system This typically happens when enough particles are suspended in the fluid. Gas unlimited houston texas When you pour a fluid with higher-viscosity, these particles bump into one another; the watery part cannot simply run down but needs to elbow its way through the crowd of particles, dragging them along. K gas constant The more particles—and the bigger the suspended particles—the more viscous the liquid is.

Cooks have a variety of ways to make a sauce more viscous. Gas monkey live One way is to add starches. 93 gas near me When heated together with a liquid, starches absorb the liquid and expand. Electricity vs gasoline Their volume then increases by a factor of about 30. 3 main gas laws This explains why a small amount of starch can have a big effect on viscosity. Electricity how it works Another way to thicken a sauce is by creating an emulsion. K electric company An emulsion is a mixture of two liquids that do not usually mix well. Bad gas 6 weeks pregnant In cooking, this typically means tiny droplets of oil or molten fat dispersed in a watery solution. C gastronomie traiteur avis These tiny droplets act like the particles when a liquid is made viscous.

In this activity you will explore what thickens a cheese sauce and measure how the viscosity changes when you eliminate the different thickening agents, one at a time.

• Scale to measure 100 grams of each type of cheese (If you do not have a scale available, buy a little less than half a pound—about 200 grams—of each cheese; half of the purchased amount will be approximately one 100 grams of cheese.)

• Cut off one eighth a cup of butter and add it to the plate that is still empty. Electricity water analogy animation Repeat this two more times, adding butter to the two plates that have cheese on them.

• Fill the three tall glasses with the cooked macaroni, leaving about one to two inches at the top for the sauce. Gas cap light In a moment you will pour a three-quarter cup of sauce over one of the cups of macaroni to measure how easily the sauce flows.

• When mixed together in the right way, these ingredients yield a nice thick sauce that sticks to your macaroni and lingers in your mouth. Gas key staking tool Milk is very runny. 76 gas station jobs Do you think it would stick to your pasta? Which ingredient(s) do you think will help the sauce thicken and stick better to the macaroni? Can you explain why you think one or more of these ingredient(s) will make the sauce thicker?

• Now that you have made a hypothesis (or a guess based on your current knowledge), you can start the test. Electricity song omd You will make three sauces, one with all the ingredients as listed, a second with everything except the flour and a last one with everything except the cheese.

• Note that the directions instruct you to create one sauce after the other. Gas leak los angeles If you have enough utensils and pans available, you can make two sauces simultaneously with someone else’s help.

• Follow the instructions below to create your first sauce. Gas prices in texas 2015 This sauce will include all the ingredients. Gas natural fenosa Note the right amount of butter and cheese is sitting on a plate, ready to be used. M gasol Be sure to have an adult help when using the stove.

• Blend in one tablespoon of all-purpose flour, stir well and cook for a few minutes until the butter–flour mixture looks smooth and the flour has absorbed the liquid.

• How does this sauce feel as you stir it in the pot? Do you feel any resistance? How does this sauce run as you let it flow from the spoon? Does it look nice and thick or rather thin and runny?

• If you have a food thermometer, use it to register the temperature of your sauce just before you pour it over the macaroni (see next step). Gas hydrates are used (Tip: Having all sauces at the same temperature when performing the measurement will yield more exact results.)

• In a moment, you will pour a three-quarter cup of sauce over the macaroni. Gas prices going up to 5 dollars Do you think this sauce will pile up on top of the macaroni or will it slowly or quickly run down and accumulate near the bottom? In this activity you will measure the time it takes to flow down as an indication of how easily the sauce flows. Electricity lesson plans year 6 Be sure to have an adult help you when you are handling the warm saucepan and sauce.

• Take one tall glass of macaroni, pour a three-quarter cup of warm sauce over it and start the timer. Electricity edison Watch the sauce make its way down and stop the timer as soon as some sauce reaches the bottom of the glass. Thitima electricity sound effect Maybe the sauce never makes it all the way down, which is fine, too. Electricity jokes riddles Were you surprised about how fast or slow this sauce made its way down? Wait! No eating from this macaroni yet! Be patient; at the end of your tests you—and your helpers—will be able to taste all your sauces and vote for the best taste.

• You can save any leftover sauce that is still in the saucepan. Gas vs electric stove cost Wash and dry your saucepan, whisk, measuring cup and spoon and get ready to make your second sauce.

• Follow the instructions to create your second sauce, as described above, with one single change: Do not add any flour. Eon gas card top up After melting the butter, go directly to adding spices (if you used any) and milk. Hp gas online booking hyderabad Which differences do you notice while making this sauce? Does this sauce feel different when you stir it in the pot? Does it run differently as you let it flow from the spoon?

• While you let your sauce cool down a little, think about what you expect will happen when you pour this sauce over the second glass of macaroni . Was electricity invented during the industrial revolution Do you think this sauce will pile up on top of the macaroni—or slowly or quickly run down and accumulate near the bottom?

• If you have a food thermometer, use it to measure the temperature of the sauce and wait until it reaches the same temperature as the sauce in your first test.

• Measure how this sauce flows by pouring a three-quarter cup of sauce over the macaroni in the second glass, then time how long it takes for some sauce to flow all the way down to the bottom of the glass. Shale gas in spanish Did this sauce run faster or slower than the sauce with all ingredients? Note the only difference between the two sauces is that you omitted the tablespoon of flour in the second sauce. Gas tax in texas Are you surprised a relatively small amount of flour can have this effect?

• Save the sauce left in the pan in a clean container for later. J gastroenterol Wash and dry your saucepan, whisk, measuring cup and spoon and get ready to try your final sauce. Z gas guatemala (This version will be easier and quicker to make.)

• Follow the instructions to create your initial sauce (including the flour) with one single change: Do not add any cheese. Gas pain Does this sauce feel different when you stir it in the pot? Does it run differently as you let it flow from the spoon?

• Perform the procedure, as described above, to measure how this sauce runs down the third glass of macaroni. O goshi judo How does the time compare with the previous two measurements?

• Now it’s time to taste your three versions of macaroni and cheese! Divide them up among different plates if you are sharing with your helpers or friends. Electricity units of measurement Which one is your favorite? If others sampled them as well, is there a group favorite?

• Extra: This sauce was thickened with cheese as well as a flour–butter mixture called a roux (pronounced “roo,” in cooking). Gas after eating bread What do you think would happen if you reduced the amount of cheese and increased the amount of roux? If it is hard to imagine, try it with extremes. Gas x strips after gastric sleeve What would a sauce taste like if it was only thickened with butter and flour? Can you change the recipe so you get exactly the viscosity and cheesy taste you prefer?

Was your first sauce the most viscous? Did it take the most time to reach the bottom of the glass? Both the flour and the cheese help thicken the sauce.

Next you omitted the flour. Gas mask drawing You had about one cup of cheese for a little more than two cups of sauce (one cup of cheese, one cup of milk and one eighth cup of butter). Electricity projects for class 12 About half the volume in your final sauce is taken up by suspended droplets or particles. Gas laws worksheet with answers This is the ratio at which a sauce starts to clearly thicken. Gas pain in shoulder Any addition of particles will dramatically increase the viscosity (or thickness) of the sauce.

Finally, you omitted the cheese. Electricity production You had one tablespoon of flour to thicken the sauce. Gas vs diesel towing Flour is mainly a starch and starches expand when heated in a liquid. Gas city indiana police department Your tablespoon of flour took up about half a cup of space in your final sauce! That is a lot compared to the tiny amount of flour added, although not enough to thicken one cup of milk.

With both the cheese and the flour, you had 60 to 70 percent of the volume of the sauce taken up by suspended droplets or particles, yielding a nice, thick sauce.