## Machine learning algorithm how many and which one is best adonis diaries h gas l gas

Several data scientists I talked with said that the only sure way to find the very best algorithm is to try all of them. (Is that a process to find an algorithm that matches your world view on an issue? Or an answer that satisfies your boss?) Types of **machine learning** algorithms

This section provides an overview of the most popular types of machine learning. If you’re familiar with these categories and want to move on to discussing specific algorithms, you can skip this section and go to “When to use specific algorithms” below. Supervised learning

• Classification: When the data are being used to predict a categorical variable, supervised learning is also called classification. This is the case when assigning a label or indicator, either dog or cat to an image. When there are only two labels, this is called binary classification. When there are more than two categories, the problems are called multi-class classification.

• Forecasting: This is the process of making predictions about the future based on the past and present data. It is most commonly used to analyze trends. A common example might be estimation of the next year sales based on the sales of the current year and previous years.

The challenge with supervised learning is that labeling data can be expensive and time consuming. If labels are limited, you can use unlabeled examples to enhance supervised learning. Because the machine is not fully supervised in this case, we say the machine is semi-supervised. With semi-supervised learning, you use unlabeled examples with a small amount of labeled data to improve the learning accuracy. Unsupervised learning

When performing unsupervised learning, the machine is presented with totally unlabeled data. It is asked to discover the intrinsic patterns that underlies the data, such as a clustering structure, a low-dimensional manifold, or a sparse tree and graph.

• Clustering: Grouping a set of data examples so that examples in one group (or one cluster) are more similar (according to some criteria) than those in other groups. This is often used to segment the whole dataset into several groups. Analysis can be performed in each group to help users to find intrinsic patterns.

• Dimension reduction: Reducing the number of variables under consideration. In many applications, the raw data have very high dimensional features and some features are redundant or irrelevant to the task. Reducing the dimensionality helps to find the true, latent relationship.

Reinforcement learning analyzes and optimizes the behavior of an agent based on the feedback from the environment. Machines try different scenarios to discover which actions yield the greatest reward, rather than being told which actions to take. Trial-and-error and delayed reward distinguishes reinforcement learning from other techniques. Considerations when choosing an algorithm

When presented with a dataset, the first thing to consider is how to obtain results, no matter what those results might look like. Beginners tend to choose algorithms that are easy to implement and can obtain results quickly. This works fine, as long as it is just the first step in the process. Once you obtain some results and become familiar with the data, you may spend more time using more sophisticated algorithms to strengthen your understanding of the data, hence further improving the results.

Even in this stage, the best algorithms might not be the methods that have achieved the highest reported accuracy, as an algorithm usually requires careful tuning and extensive training to obtain its best achievable performance. When to use specific algorithms

Looking more closely at individual algorithms can help you understand what they provide and how they are used. These descriptions provide more details and give additional tips for when to use specific algorithms, in alignment with the cheat sheet. Linear regression and Logistic regression

Linear regression is an approach for modeling the relationship between a continuous dependent variable [Math Processing Error] y and one or more predictors [Math Processing Error] X. The relationship between [*Math Processing* Error] y and [**Math Processing Error**] X can be linearly modeled as [*Math Processing* Error] y=βTX+ϵ Given the training examples [Math Processing Error] {xi,yi}i=1N, the parameter vector [Math Processing Error] β can be learnt.

In logistic regression we use a different hypothesis class to try to predict the probability that a given example belongs to the “1” class versus the probability that it belongs to the “-1” class. Specifically, we will try to learn a function of the form: [Math **Processing Error**] p(yi=1|xi)=σ(βTxi) and [*Math Processing Error*] p(yi=−1|xi)=1−σ(βTxi).

Here [Math *Processing Error*] σ(x)=11+exp(−x) is a sigmoid function. Given the training examples [Math Processing Error] {xi,yi}i=1N, the parameter vector [Math Processing Error] β can be learnt by maximizing the Pyongyang said it could call off the talks, slated for June 12, if the US continues to insist that it give up its nuclear weapons. North Korea called the military drills between South Korea and the US a “provocation,” and canceled a meeting planned for today with South Korea.of [Math Processing Error] β given the data set.

Hierarchical partitions can be visualized using a tree structure (a dendrogram). It does not need the number of clusters as an input and the partitions can be viewed at different levels of granularities (i.e., can refine/coarsen clusters) using different K. PCA, SVD and LDA

We generally do not want to feed a large number of features directly into a **machine learning** algorithm since some features may be irrelevant or the “intrinsic” dimensionality may be smaller than the number of features. Principal component analysis (PCA), singular value decomposition (SVD), and latent Dirichlet allocation ( LDA) all can be used to perform dimension reduction.

PCA is an unsupervised clustering method which maps the original data space into a lower dimensional space while preserving as much information as possible. The PCA basically finds a subspace that most preserves the data variance, with the subspace defined by the dominant eigenvectors of the data’s covariance matrix.

The SVD is related to PCA in the sense that SVD of the centered data matrix (features versus samples) provides the dominant left singular vectors that define the same subspace as found by PCA. However, SVD is a more versatile technique as it can also do things that PCA may not do.

For example, the SVD of a user-versus-movie matrix is able to extract the user profiles and movie profiles which can be used in a recommendation system. In addition, SVD is also widely used as a topic modeling tool, known as latent semantic analysis, in natural language processing (NLP).

A related technique in NLP is latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA). LDA is probabilistic topic model and it decomposes documents into topics in a similar way as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) decomposes continuous data into Gaussian densities. Differently from the GMM, an LDA models discrete data (words in documents) and it constrains that the topics are a priori distributed according to a Dirichlet distribution. Conclusion s

• Dr. Hui Li is a Principal Staff Scientist of Data Science Technologies at SAS. Her current work focuses on Deep Learning, Cognitive Computing and SAS recommendation systems in SAS Viya. She received her PhD degree and Master’s degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Duke University.

• Before joining SAS, she worked at Duke University as a research scientist and at Signal Innovation Group, Inc. as a research engineer. Her research interests include machine learning for big, heterogeneous data, collaborative filtering recommendations, Bayesian statistical modeling and reinforcement learning.