Management theory review gas 2016


Introduction: This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the impact of Industry 4.0 on SCM and aims to provide a thought towards Supply Chain 4.0. The scope of the analysis has been intentionally limited to include only four functions within a supply chain, i.e. procurement, transport logistics, warehouse and order fulfilment. This is presented with respect to the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of the SCM. It is hoped that the current output will open up future pathways to draw the bigger picture and thus conduct a fuller analysis of these impacts.

Research Method: The research method for this paper is based on review of researcg papers with SCM focus. SCM components and KPIs for each of the components were identified for better understanding of SCM and then the impacts of the changes in technology on each KPI were analysed. The opportunities and threats exhibited in each of the technologies for each of the KPIs were then discussed by linking them with each area of the SCM under study. KPIs are defined in order to obtain quantifiable measures to compare if there are changes over time. The identification of these KPIs is, however, rather complicated because there are no clear boundaries between the levers (buy, storage, sell, move).

Results and Discussion: The results were created for technologies affecting each KPI, if a technology is affecting KPI then reason behind it is mentioned in form of template. electricity kwh cost uk Technology affecting KPIs in warehouse and transportation logistics were presented in form of template. The opportunities and threats with respect to industry 4.0 technologies were also presented in form of template. The aim of this paper is to fill the gap in the implementation of technologies involved in Industry 4.0 within the supply chain, particularly the warehouse, transport logistics, procurement and fulfilment functions. Through the analysis performed, the results showed that the areas which will be most affected by the introduction of Industry 4.0 are the order fulfilment and transport logistics. Finally, within the procurement function, Industry 4.0 shows 71.43% of opportunities, the remainder being opportunities or threats.

Conclusion: From the analysis performed, it can be seen that the implementation of certain technologies, such as virtual and augmented realities, 3D-Printing and simulation, results will all result in opportunities. On the other hand, big data analytics, cloud technology, cyber security, the IoT, miniaturization of electronics, AIDC, RFID, robotics, drones and nanotechnology, M2M and BI could be opportunities or threats for the organizations. The fact that some technologies can result in both of opportunities and threats is because all the different areas are interconnected, with no clear boundaries between them, depending on where it was analyzed, it could have a positive or negative connotation. gas in oil briggs and stratton engine The most relevant benefits are increased flexibility, quality standards, efficiency and productivity. This will enable mass customization, allowing companies to meet customers’ demands, creating value through constantly introducing new products and services to the market.

Limitation and future scope: Author calls for empirical research in this area. Due to the fact that the implementation of these technologies will be accompanied by a new environment where people work with machines, he believes that legal aspects, liabilities, insurance and ethics should be considered. The work should be continued with some empirical work and assessment of how companies should digitally integrate their supply chain with real implementation and data.

Enhancing Knowledge Discovery and Innovation in the Digital Era is a vibrant reference source on the latest research on student education, open information, technology enhanced learning (TEL), and student outcomes. Featuring widespread coverage across a range of applicable perspectives and topics, such as engineering education, data mining, and 3D printing, this book is ideally designed for professionals, upper-level students, and academics seeking current research on knowledge management and innovation networks.

Characterized by new technologies fusing the physical, digital and biological worlds, the Fourth Industrial Revolution will impact all disciplines, economies and industries – and it will do so at an unprecedented rate. World Economic Forum data predicts that by 2025 we will see: commercial use of nanomaterials 200 times stronger than steel and a million times thinner than human hair; the first transplant of a 3D-printed liver; 10% of all cars on US roads being driverless; and much more besides.

In leadership theory, three studies are considered as seminal and important. In Iowa leadership studies, authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire leadership concepts were proposed and investigated for their effect on aggressive and apathetic behavior on the part of followers. Laissez-faire approach resulted in more aggressive behavior, authoritarian style resulted in more apathetic behavior and democratic style was in between the two.

In Ohio leadership studies, a questionaire was used on air force commanders and members of bomber crews as well as other leaders and the responses were subjected to factor analysis. Two factors emerged out of the analysis and were given the names of consideration and initiating structure. They became more popular as task orientation and people orientation.

In Michigan studies, 12 pairs of high-producing and low-producing sections of an insurance company were studied. The conclusion was that high-producing sections were supervised in a general rather than close supervisory style and supervisors were people centered. In the case of low-producing section, the supervision was more close and task oriented.

From the trait theories, a list of skills categorized as technical, conceptual and human skills needed for effective management or leadership are specified. Yukl further identified that skills such as creativity, organizing ability, persuasiveness, diplomacy and tactfulness, knowledge of the task, and the ability to speak well contribute to leader success.

In this group of theories, some analyzed the relationship between leader and the followers as one consisting of dyads, leader and each follower. electricity icons free One idea that emerged from this thinking is that leader behavior changes with subordinate behavior. When subordinates are not performing very well, leaders tend to emphasize the task and initiate structure to improve the performance. With subordinates who are doing a good job, consideration to people becomes the dominant behavior.

Another aspect of leadership brought out by this line of theory is that subordinates who are committed and who expend a lot of effort for the unit are rewarded with more of the leader’s potential resources than those who do not display these behaviors. “Thus over a time the leader develops an “in-group” and an “out-group” of subordinates and these two groups are treated in different ways. The in-group reports fewer difficulties in their relationship with the leader and the out-group people have more complaints and grievances.

Fiedler found that when situation is very favorable or unfavorable, authoritarian leadership style delivered better results. When the situation is moderately favorable or unfavorable, human oriented or democratic leadership delivered better results. As in majority of the case, the situation will be in the middle ground, democratic leadership style is the more popular and appropriate style.

Leadership behavior will be motivational and increase the effort of the followers to the extent that (1) it makes satisfaction of follower needs contingent on effective performance of the tasks planned by the leader and (2) it complements the environment of subordinates by providing the coaching, guidance, support, and rewards which are necessary for effective performance and which may otherwise be lacking in subordinates or in their environment.

Robert House suggested that charismatic leaders are characterized by self confidence and confidence in subordinates, high expectations for subordinates, ideological vision, and the use of personal examples. Followers identify with leader and his mission, exhibit extreme loyalty to and confidence in the leader, emulate leader’s values and behavior, and derive self esteem from their relationship with the leader. The leaders foster attitudinal, behavioral and emotional changes in their followers. Charismatic leaders produce performance in followers beyond expectations.

4. grade 6 electricity project ideas The leader enhances the efficacy of subordinates through setting up successful experiences (coaching), modeling, positive feedback, and persuasion, and psychological and physiological arousal. The increased efficacy leads to performance improvement. The success of the subordinates can in turn lead to leadership efficacy through the increased confidence in leader as well as appropriate subordinate behavior to reward his leader.

Leadership theories are not mutually exclusive. Each theory to an extent supplements or complements other theories. Leaders are better individuals in various traits compared to average followers. Leaders have to provide value to followers. Their effectiveness does not depend only on their traits and performance. The behavior of followers is also an important variable in determining the outcome of the organization. Hence group responsibility needs to be stressed to attain the outcomes or objectives of the group rather the role of leader alone. Leaders have to be coaches and they have to take interest in developing their subordinates’ capabilities.

Servant leadership has grown in popularity in the past five decades, but researchers have only been able to actually measure the term since around 2006. Measurement instruments such as Page and Wong’s Servant Leadership Profile (2000), Laub’s Organizational Leadership Assessment (2000), and Dennis and Bocarnea’s assessment instrument (2005) proved to be reliable in measuring different characteristics of a servant leader. These tools provide validity to the philosophy and established a foundation of reliability for future research. In an effort to conceptualize and measure the construct of servant leadership, Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) tested 11 dimensions of servant leadership to test “internal consistency, confirm factor structure, and assess convergent, divergent, and predictive validity” (p. 300). Many practical implications were derived from this study. circle k gas station locations It found a positive relationship between positive outcomes such as employee satisfaction and extra effort on their part. Additionally, the research showed a great infusion of emotional health, wisdom, and service-oriented attitudes (2006).