March 12, 2019—lake wylie pilot study next steps high frontier gas number density

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I’ve written about our Lake Wylie Pilot Study repeatedly since 2014. For the most comprehensive summary reports: click here for my December 18, 2018 message that laid out in detail the origins of our effort; and click here for my January 15, 2019 message that updated it with a focus on exporting the lessons learned beyond South Carolina, including specifically the possibility of joining forces with our colleagues in Texas.

When Texas State Senator Bob Hall and I both were USAF officers in the 1960s, we worked to harden the Minuteman system against nuclear weapons effects, including electromagnetic electricity questions and answers physics pulse (EMP) effects. Thus, Bob well understands the nature of the threat and what is needed to harden against it. He is trying for the third time in the Texas Legislature to persuade his gas up the jet colleagues to take steps to harden the Texas grid — and the Texas legislature only meets every other year.

I have refused offers for initiatives to seek support from either our SC state or federal legislators, although I have kept key legislators informed of our Lake Wylie efforts and progress. But I am an engineer and wanted first to understand the problems and then what it will take to harden the key infrastructure in York County, and particularly in Rock Hill, the fourth largest city in South Carolina.

We have now gone far enough in examining vulnerabilities of the York County Distribution Grid and estimating what it will cost to assure its viability when under a major EMP attack; and we are now prepared to take the next steps in seeking funding to achieve that viability for the citizens of Rock Hill and York County — at least insofar as the Distribution Grid is concerned.

The electricity produced and provided by Duke then serves the citizens of Rock Hill and York County via infrastructure mostly owned and operated by the Rock Hill Utility Company and the York Electric Cooperative (co-op) Company. They and about 40 other Municipal Utility and co-op companies serve most of the citizens of South Carolina via “Distribution” Grid infrastructure that is connected to the “Generation” and “Transmission” portions b games 2 of the grid — mostly provided by Duke Energy and now Dominion Energy.

As illustrated above, “Transmission” lines (in blue) carry very high voltage — nominally over 100 kilovolts (KV) — electricity over long distances that is then stepped down by Extra High Voltage (EHV) and High Voltage (HV) Transformers to lower voltage “Distribution” lines (in green) that deliver electricity to most customers — perhaps most notably to private citizens, but also to most commercial and other customers that provide essential support to our citizens. Hospitals, water-wastewater infrastructure, essential communications — especially 76 gas station jobs to support emergency management operations, etc. are important examples of these essential functions.

So, while Duke was committed to do all it could to assure its grid (all components) is protected, there was little assurance that the Rock Hill/York County Distribution Grid would likewise be protected — and that fact notably left at risk such critical infrastructure as supports a major Rock Hill hospital and water-wastewater infrastructure essential to many York County citizens.

I have, as yet, no idea of the state of the viability of the Generation/Transmission/Distribution connections among the rest of the 40 utility and co-op companies in South Carolina and their respective Generation/Transmission components of the Grid — e.g., note that Dominion Energy is now becoming electricity calculator the second major Generation/Transmission source of electricity in South Carolina. That assessment can follow from the approach and lessons-learned from our Lake Wylie Pilot Study.

Serious grid disaggregation is only one of the results of the dysfunctional nature of the Federal Government in addressing the existential threat to the electric grid. And it is a reason why President Trump should end the fact that no-one below him is today responsible for assuring the entire electric grid is managed to assure all U.S. citizens are protected from existential threats — subject for another day, that hopefully will soon be clarified by President Trump in a pending Executive Order.

This distinction between the Transmission and Distribution portions of the grid e payment electricity bill mp is complicated by the separate Federal and State regulatory responsibilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) deals only with the “bulk power grid,” defined to consist only of the Generation and Transmission components. Distribution infrastructure is regulated at the state level. And as best I can tell, all of this complex structure is managed mostly by a variety of committees — from the local to the federal level. No one is in charge of assuring the system functions under major stress, such as could be the consequence of an EMP attack — or a major solar storm.

Moreover, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has primary oversight over the Nuclear Power Plants, which are a top priority Power Generation concern, as I have emphasized from the beginning of our High Frontier studies. In the event of a major grid blackout, the NRC requires that that the reactors be shut down following a blackout hp gas online login — and for safety’s sake in that state, the cooling water must be kept flowing or a Fukushima condition might occur, releasing radiation that the winds could carry throughout the United States.

This reality was one of the reasons for initiating the Lake Wylie Pilot Study, since Duke Energy operates both the Catawba nuclear power plant and the Wylie hydroelectric power plant, which is among the most resilient of power plants as a class. Note half of South Carolina’s electricity and about a third of North Carolina’s electricity comes from nuclear power plants — so, getting this matter right is very 1 electricity unit in kwh important to both states.

In my judgment, assuring a viable Distribution Grid should also be assigned a high priority, because of the complexity of assuring a complex integrated effort needed to harden our national grid, given the likely variety across our fifty states and the associated variation among reportedly 3500 or so municipal utility and co-op companies across the nation, responsible for providing electricity to the private sector— hospitals, water-wastewater, other utilities, businesses, people, industry, transportation, etc. Imagine life without electricity!

This reality was most clearly demonstrated in a February 27, 2019 roundtable on Capitol Hill, chaired by Senator Ron Johnson (R-WI) — Chairman of the Senate Homeland Security Committee. Click here for the two hours that is well worth your time, just to see his open frustration with the lethargy of the Federal Government, with which I most assuredly concur.

This lethargy even more convinces me that we should emphasize working the problem from the bottom-up, where the complexities can most directly be understood and dealt with — provided the local engineers know what to do. And that is another feature of our Lake Wylie Pilot Study that is so far as I know unique among other worthy gas and bloating activities around the nation intended to protect the grid.

I am most concerned about the reality that very few technical authorities know very much about the EMP threat or how to deal with it — in spite of the fact that we first learned of the threat almost 60 years ago. And within another 15 years, the Department of Defense — most specifically gas youtube the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) — learned how to harden our strategic systems and their associated command, control and communications systems to EMP effects.

Therefore, the Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, which never took seriously studies or testing of EMP (or other nuclear weapons) effects during the Cold War (their focus was on building nuclear weapons, not nuclear weapons effects) are seeking funds and programs to “reinvent the wheel” that was mastered by DoD a half century ago. And their slow pace is frustrating to watch.

As I discussed in my January 15, 2019 message, the presidents of the Rock Hill Utility and York County Electric Company opened their Distribution Grid infrastructure for George electricity and magnetism online games’s assessment and costing exercise. Consequently, we now have a very credible cost estimate to assure the viability of key infrastructure supporting the hospital, water-wastewater, emergency management, etc. — and that credible knowledge will be helpful in seeking funding to protect key Distribution Grid infrastructure that is currently deficient.

” . . . in the recent Vostok-2018 exercises Russian forces and the Ministry of Energy conducted large-scale exercises to restore electric grids and power supply after an attack. In other words, Russia rehearsed an EMP (electromagnetic pulse) operation, and its aftermath strongly suggesting that it either expects or intends to launch . . . “ (Emphasis added)