Migrant’s journey from rural bangladesh shows sacrifices, dangers of slum life _ jakarta globe

The story of how he swapped rural farming for survival in one of Dhaka’s burgeoning slums on privately-owned land reflects the precarious situation of up to half a million Bangladeshis estimated to migrate to the capital each year.

Kalam’s journey began when the Meghna River wiped out his home for the second time, sending the family deep into debt after he borrowed $765 from moneylenders to build a new house.

His neighbors told him, “Go to Dhaka,” suggesting that in order to pay to marry off two teenage daughters, he would have to leave his home in Madras, on Bhola, home to more than two million people, a third of whom live below the poverty line.

With empty pockets, he and his family set off on the 18-hour trip by river to the capital, where he was taken on by a garment washing factory to carry clothes in a role that was a far cry from his old life paddy farming in his village.

Earning just $76 a month, Kalam struggled to make ends meet and, four months into the job, he left to take up other work demolishing buildings with a hammer and a shovel, he said.

This paid a little over $6 a day but the work was irregular and eventually he had no alternative but to find work for his two eldest daughters with a garment producer in Mirpur district.

There, his teenage daughters cut sewing threads and checked clothes for alterations for $51 a month — less than the industry minimum wage of $68.

Kalam and his family are not alone. Electricity storage association According to the World Bank, each year up to half a million rural migrants stream into Dhaka for work, swelling the ranks of the urban poor.

Experts say more than three-quarters of new arrivals end up living in a bastee – owned by private landlords who provide some services — as squatter settlements on public land have disappeared amid demolitions and evictions by authorities.

Since Bangladesh declared independence in 1971, the city’s population has quadrupled to around 20 million. Gas smoker ribs By 2050, it is projected to reach more than 35 million.

Three years on, life for Kalam and his family is far from comfortable. Electricity in salt water experiment He and his wife sleep on the concrete floor of their one-room shack to leave space for four children who share a bed. Gas prices going up The family share a toilet with 10 households and risk fire by cooking with an electric stove as they have no gas.

“[My] sorrows have a beginning but no end. Electricity 101 pdf I have lost everything, but the greatest loss is my daughters’ education,” said Kalam, reflecting on his life in the city.

The family rents their room for $32 a month and the landlord takes care of some services, including electricity and water — important in a city where slum-dwellers on public land often have to pay “mastaans,” powerful local figures, for utilities.

Experts say the failure to re-house inhabitants evicted from homes in public settlements that have been demolished partly accounts for the boom in privately-owned slums.

“Slums are being cleared, but slum dwellers stay behind — they are not leaving Dhaka,” Khondker Rebaca Sun-Yat, executive director at advocacy group the Coalition for the Urban Poor (CUP), told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

A 2014 census found that nearly 60 percent of slums in the north and south of Dhaka are built on private land, but urban experts and rights groups estimate the figure at 80-90 percent.

“Cities have sources of income. Gas news in hindi You build infrastructure in cities; how can you expect rural people not to come to cities?” she said. La t gastrobar opiniones “If rural areas had income sources and mills and factories, people wouldn’t have come to Dhaka,” she said.

The development of Dhaka reflects a wider rise in the numbers of urban poor and what economists call the “non-monetary” conditions of poverty, such as overcrowding, vulnerability, poor security and poor sanitation, experts say.

The number of urban poor in Bangladesh rose to 8 million from 6 million between 1991 and 2010, the latest period for which data is available. 6 gas laws In contrast, the number of rural poor went down in the same period, to 46 million from 55 million.

Nine in 10 slum-dwellers in Dhaka were born outside the capital, while one-fifth are poor, according to initial results of a 2016 urban slum survey conducted by the World Bank.

Tenure in privately-owned slums is no more secure than in public squatter settlements, according to Salma A. Electricity outage Shafi, treasurer of the Centre for Urban Studies, a thinktank in Dhaka.

“The tenants [in private slums] have no security as rents are raised according to the owner-developers’ whims,” she said. Electricity pick up lines “Without any contractual agreement or legal support, tenants have no power.”

Mosharraf Hossain, Minister of Housing and Public Works, is among those who believe migration to urban areas of Bangladesh is now “unnecessary” as wages have risen in rural areas.

He said the city was not in a position to absorb more rural migrants given the poor state of its sewerage network, which covers just two-fifths of the city’s population.

“It’s better not to have slums,” Hossain told the Thomson Reuters Foundation at his ministerial office in central Dhaka. Electricity estimated bills “Slum people are living in sub-human conditions, near the rail lines. Gas and bloating after miscarriage This is unnecessary.”

Kalam said he was prepared to move to another private slum nearby — even for more rent — if he had to, but he did not want to leave Mirpur, where he and his daughters earn their living.