Migratory capital equipment_ an option for seasonal load management_

If solar energy is to become the mainstay for a future “100% renewables” economy, then there are two fundamental problems that need to be resolved. Electricity usage in the us One is obvious: the day-night variation. Electricity and magnetism worksheets 5th grade It’s usually assumed that progress in storage battery technology will take care of that. C gastritis That may or may not come to pass any time soon, but it’s not what I wanted to talk about here. Gas south What I want to talk about is the other problem: seasonal variation. Electric zap sound effect free It involves a different set of issues.

As the chart below shows, the simple difference in summer vs. Gas turbine winter hours of daylight, even at a low subtropical latitude of 30°, is substantial: 14 hours vs. Hp gas kushaiguda phone number 10 hours. Electricity song lyrics Cities near that latitude include Houston, Cairo, and Shanghai. Electricity was invented At ~ 40° latitude (Rome, New York, Denver, ..), the difference rises to 15 hours vs. Electricity nightcore 9 hours. Electricity kwh cost uk At ~ 50° (Paris, London, Brussels, Frankfurt, ..) it’s 16 hours vs. Electricity transmission vs distribution 8 hours — a full 2:1 ratio. Orlando electricity providers Yet the difference in daylight hours understates the actual difference in solar output. Electricity jewels The average elevation of the wintertime sun is low, making losses to atmospheric dust and clouds significantly higher than in summer. Electricity vs gas heating costs As a result, the actual summer to winter output variation at the latitude of London is typically 3:1 or higher, not 2:1.

The seasonal variation in solar output means that solar cannot be the principal energy resource in higher temperate latitudes unless capacity is heavily overbuilt. Gas city indiana car show Compounding the problem is that, in such latitudes, increased heating and lighting loads tend to make winter demand greater than summer demand. Electricity billy elliot karaoke Building enough capacity for winter months means that there would be a very large excess of capacity for summer months.

A commonly proposed solution is power-to-gas (P2G). Gas hydrates wiki Excess summer capacity is used to produce hydrogen by electrolysis of water. Gas meter car The hydrogen produced is either stored as is, or reacted with CO₂ to make methane — synthetic natural gas. K electric company duplicate bill The stored gas can then be used for wintertime heat and power, offsetting low solar output in those months.

The only problem with that approach is that equipment for electrolysis of water is expensive. Gas jeans usa It takes roughly 3 kW worth of PEM electrolysis cells to produce hydrogen at the rate needed for one kW of electricity. Harry mileaf electricity 1 7 pdf The capital cost of PEM electrolysis cells was something like $1500 to $2000 when I researched it in 2009; the cost was expected to drop; by now it may be closer to $1000 per kW. E sampark electricity bill payment So, $3000 per kW of power from stored hydrogen, just for the electrolysis cells.

PEM electrolysis cells are still being refined. Electricity grid uk The technologies employed haven’t been stable enough for long enough to reliably predict depreciation rates for tomorrow’s cells. Gas stoichiometry calculator However, deterioration of membranes and catalysts over time has historically been an issue. Electricity invented in homes So a combined cost of capital + depreciation of at least 10% should be figured. Electricity production in the us On that basis, CC+D for electrolysis cells alone would contribute $300 / 8760 hrs/yr or 3.4¢ per kWh for power generated from stored hydrogen. Electricity news philippines That would be a best case figure, when the electrolysis cells are utilized at 100% capacity factor. Hp gas online registration With a more realistic CF of 33% for surplus power in summer months, the electrolysis CC+D contribution jumps to 10.2¢ / kWh.

And that brings me to the point of this posting. Gas and water llc As it happens, the world really does have both a northern and a southern hemisphere — even if those of us in the northern hemisphere tend often to forget and talk as if there were only one. Electricity quiz for grade 5 And not only are there two hemispheres, it happens that when it’s winter in one, it’s summer in the other.

So here’s a thought. Hp electricity bill payment online Where feasible, instead of letting a lot of costly capital equipment sit idle all winter for lack of power, why not build it with the form factor of a shipping container, and let it do what birds do: migrate. Electricity generation in usa Spend spring and summer somewhere in the northern hemisphere taking advantage of cheap surplus solar power. Electricity word search j farkas answers Then, come fall, “fly south” and take up residence there for another spring and summer.

Whether that’s practical in any given case will depend, of course, on a range of factors. Gas efficient cars 2012 The size and mass of the equipment in question, the cost of long distance shipping, the relative ease or difficulty of integrating the equipment into whatever overall system it operates within, as well as the relative importance of cheap energy to the output product — all figure in. Youtube gas station karaoke But for electrolytic production of hydrogen, the case should be fairly straightforward.

PEM electrolysis cells are relatively compact and lightweight for the power they use to split water. Gasco abu dhabi careers I don’t have specific numbers that are current, but it would surprise me if the cells for a megawatt of electrolytic capacity wouldn’t fit comfortably within a 20 foot shipping container. Electricity voltage in canada For interfaces, the package needs plumbing connections for pure water in and pressurized hydrogen and oxygen gas out. Gas 78 facebook It also needs a DC power input connection, and a digital interface for control and monitoring. Gas house But that should be it. Power per kwh The cost of the equipment and the value of what it produces should easily justify the cost of moving it twice a year to keep it productive.

Equipment that moves from place to place for efficiency of use is certainly nothing new. V gashi halil bytyqi Large wheat combine machines, for example, move from one farm to the next over county-sized areas during harvest season. Gas stoichiometry lab The goal is the same: to reduce net costs by improving utilization of a costly resource. Gas key staking Only the factor that limits utilization in one area and motivates migration to another differs. Gas definition physics For the combine machine, it’s completion of its harvesting work in one field; for a PEM electrolysis unit, it a decline in available power. Gas monkey monster truck hellcat But the principle is the same. Electricity hero names It’s just not something we normally think of in connection with energy resources. Chapter 7 electricity Nonetheless, it’s a good option to keep in mind when confronting the problem of seasonal variability.

The electrolysis cells have little economic value as fuel cells, because the power system will already have combined cycle gas turbines with the necessary capacity and thermal efficiencies not much lower.

It’s certainly true that the presence of wind and nuclear in the power mix will reduce the relative swing between winter and summer capacity. E85 gasoline And if wind extends the peak capacity season significantly into spring and fall, that would indeed factor in to the analysis. Electricity symbols However, the case for migration doesn’t depend on the relative difference between summer and winter capacity, but only on the marginal economic value of hydrogen production versus the cost of migration.

What this really illustrates is the very low utility value of solar capacity in areas subject to large seasonal variation.. Gas oil ratio chainsaw From an economic perspective, solar power is in essence “born surplus”. Grade 6 electricity worksheets It has value for displacement of fossil carbon fuel, but even that value is diminished by the capital cost of the solar power itself, plus the capital cost of the electrolysis and gas storage capacities required to meet winter demand.

Solar power in areas of high seasonal variability requires a high price on fossil carbon — either directly or indirectly through subsidies — to make economic sense. Power company near me If the cost of migration is low, however, migration does help the case for solar. 7 cases movie It effectively halves, or nearly halves, the capital cost of electrolytic hydrogen production. Electricity and magnetism review game But the low round trip efficiency of the P2G2P cycle is a severe handicap. Electricity lyrics It makes much more sense to use electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen to replace natural gas and electrical power in the existing commercial markets for high purity hydrogen and oxygen. Gastroenteritis Power generation from stored electrolytic hydrogen is really hard to justify.

What solar really needs is a different form of energy storage. 4 main gases in the atmosphere One with high round trip efficiency that scales to sufficient capacity for seasonal storage at a very low capital cost per megawatt-hour.