Mineral – simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia f gas regulations 2015


One recent definition is: "A mineral is a homogeneous naturally occurring substance with a definite but not necessarily fixed chemical composition. Most minerals are solids with an ordered atomic arrangement, and most are inorganic in the chemical sense of that word". [1]

A rock has only two of the characteristics minerals have–it is a solid and it forms naturally. A rock usually contains two or more types of minerals. Two samples of the same type of rock may have different kinds of minerals in them. Minerals are always made up of the same materials in nearly the same proportions. A ruby is a mineral. Therefore, a ruby found in India has similar makeup as a ruby found in Australia. Formed in nature [ change | change source ]

Minerals are formed by natural processes. A few substances with the same chemical composition as minerals can be produced by living creatures as part of their shells or bones. The shells of molluscs are composed of either calcite or aragonite, or both.

Traditionally, chemicals produced by living things are not considered minerals. However, it is difficult to see why an organic substance should not be called a mineral if its chemical nature and its crystalline structure is identical with its inorganic twin. This issue is now under debate: see Railsback part II. [1]

A mineral is a solid—that is, it has a definite volume and a rough shape. Volume refers to the amount of space an object takes up. For example a golf ball has a smaller volume than a baseball, and a baseball has a smaller volume than a basketball.

The particles of ice that make up frost have smooth, flat surfaces. These flat surfaces form because of the arrangement of atoms in the ice, which is a mineral. Such an internal arrangement is a characteristic of minerals. It is the structure of a crystal, a solid in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating three-dimensional pattern.

Each mineral has its own type of crystal structure. In some cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element— carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

In nature, a perfect crystal is rare. Most crystals have imperfect shapes because their growth was limited by other crystals forming next to them. Chemical properties [ change | change source ] Definite chemical makeup [ change | change source ]

Scientists can classify minerals into groups on the basis of their chemical makeup. Though there are thousands of different minerals, only about 30 are common in Earth’s crust. These 30 minerals make up most rocks in the crust. For that reason, they are called rock-forming minerals.

• Silicates are most common group. All the minerals in this group contain oxygen and silicon—the two most common elements in Earth’s crust—joined together. Silicates may include other elements such as aluminium, magnesium, iron and calcium. Quartz, feldspar, and mica are common silicates.