## Mixture – wikipedia hp gas online refill booking status

In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed. A mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are retained and are mixed in the form of solutions, suspensions and colloids. [1] [2]

Mixtures are one product of mechanically blending or mixing chemical substances such as elements and compounds, without chemical bonding or other chemical change, so that each ingredient substance retains its own chemical properties and makeup. [3] Despite that there are no chemical changes to its constituents, the physical properties of a mixture, such as its melting point, may differ from those of the components. Some mixtures can be separated into their components by using physical (mechanical or thermal) means. Azeotropes are one kind of mixture that usually pose considerable difficulties regarding the separation processes required to obtain their constituents (physical or chemical processes or, even a blend of them). [4] [5] [6] Characteristics of mixture [ edit ]

Mixtures can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous mixture is a type of mixture in which the composition is uniform and every part of the solution has the same properties. Examples of homogeneous mixtures include alloys and alcohol in water. A heterogeneous mixture is a type of mixture in which the components can be seen, as there are two or more phases present. One example of a mixture is air. Air is a homogeneous mixture of the gaseous substances nitrogen, oxygen, and smaller amounts of other substances. Salt, sugar, and many other substances dissolve in water to form homogeneous mixtures. A homogeneous mixture in which there is both a solute and solvent present is also a solution. Mixtures can have any amounts of ingredients.

A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture of two or more chemical substances ( elements or compounds). Examples are: mixtures of sand and water or sand and iron filings, a conglomerate rock, water and oil, a portion salad, trail mix, and concrete (not cement). A mixture of powdered silver metal and powdered gold metal would represent a heterogeneous mixture of two elements.

Making a distinction between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures is a matter of the scale of sampling. On a coarse enough scale, any mixture can be said to be homogeneous, if the entire article is allowed to count as a "sample" of it. On a fine enough scale, any mixture can be said to be heterogeneous, because a sample could be as small as a single molecule. In practical terms, if the property of interest of the mixture is the same regardless of which sample of it is taken for the examination used, the mixture is homogeneous.

where h i {\displaystyle h_{i}} , c i {\displaystyle c_{i}} , c batch {\displaystyle c_{\text{batch}}} , m i {\displaystyle m_{i}} , and m aver {\displaystyle m_{\text{aver}}} are respectively: the heterogeneity of the i {\displaystyle i} th particle of the population, the **mass concentration** of the property of interest in the i {\displaystyle i} th particle of the population, the __mass concentration__ of the property of interest in the population, the mass of the i {\displaystyle i} th particle in the population, and the average mass of a particle in the population.

Pierre Gy derived, from the Poisson sampling model, the following formula for the variance of the sampling error in the **mass concentration** in a sample: V = 1 ( ∑ i = 1 N q i m i ) 2 ∑ i = 1 N q i ( 1 − q i ) m i 2 ( a i − ∑ j = 1 N q j a j m j ∑ j = 1 N q j m j ) 2 . {\displaystyle V={\frac {1}{(\sum _{i=1}^{N}q_{i}m_{i})^{2}}}\sum _{i=1}^{N}q_{i}(1-q_{i})m_{i}^{2}\left(a_{i}-{\frac {\sum _{j=1}^{N}q_{j}a_{j}m_{j}}{\sum _{j=1}^{N}q_{j}m_{j}}}\right)^{2}.}

in which V is the variance of the sampling error, N is the number of particles in the population (before the sample was taken), q i is the probability of including the ith particle of the population in the sample (i.e. the first-order inclusion probability of the ith particle), m i is the mass of the ith particle of the population and a i is the **mass concentration** of the property of interest in the ith particle of the population.

In the theory of Gy, correct sampling is defined as a sampling scenario in which all particles have the same probability of being included in the sample. This implies that q i no longer depends on i, and can therefore be replaced by the symbol q. Gy’s equation for the variance of the sampling error becomes: V = 1 − q q M batch 2 ∑ i = 1 N m i 2 ( a i − a batch ) 2 . {\displaystyle V={\frac {1-q}{qM_{\text{batch}}^{2}}}\sum _{i=1}^{N}m_{i}^{2}\left(a_{i}-a_{\text{batch}}\right)^{2}.}