Modelling and analysis of different aspect of mechanisms in lightning injury request pdf electricity voltage in india


This paper presents a study about the influence of different types of soils and surge wave characteristics in terms of human safety. The study is focused on the step, contact and transferred potentials generated by a lightning striking a grounding system and gas station near me the produced potential gradients that a person could be exposed to. Initially, an introduction about the subject is made. After that, some important aspects about the grounding systems and human body representation are presented followed by a discussion regarding to the survivability threshold and the 3 gases that cause acid rain model parameterization. A Transmission Line Modeling Method and a circuit based model are used to represent the grounding system and the human body. Several simulations were performed in order to analyze the behavior of the current passing through the heart. It was found that soils with different properties do not affect the possible harmful currents considering the step potential mechanism. On the other hand, in the case of contact and transferred potentials, the soil characteristics have significant influence in the survivability threshold.

Introduction: Lightning can injure via a direct hit, a contact effect, a side splash, a ground strike or a telephone electricity office/wire-mediated strike. The flash-over phenomenon is not an independent energy transfer mechanism. It is observed in all energy transfer modes described, and accounts for the fact that many humans survive a lightning strike. Methods: Selective literature review. Results and Discussion: The majority of people hit by lightning strike survive. Lightning victims can die immediately after the lightning strike or after a latency period. Death immediately following the event is usually due to a lethal cardiac arrhythmia with ventricular fibrillation and subsequent or immediate asystole. If the lightning strike is survived initially electricity 1 7 pdf, ensuing myocardial infarction, shock following burns, secondary renal failure and trauma-related cerebral haemorrhage may occur. A lightning strike can cause numerous different lesions in survivors. Injuries to skin, the heart, the nervous system, ears and eyes are most commonly seen. The management of lightning victims is usually interdisciplinary, due to the complexity of potential injuries. Emergency management of apparently lifeless persons should take priority in a mass accident involving lightning, because of the relatively good chances of success in cardiopulmonary resuscitation of lightning gas stoichiometry worksheet answers victims.

Lightning is a hazard during outdoor activities, especially for hikers and mountaineers. Specific preventive measures include staying off ridges and summits, and away from single trees. If possible, stay close to a wall but keeping a distance of at least 1m away from the wall. All metal objects (carabiners, crampons, ice-axe, ski poles, etc.) should be removed and stored away gas jet safely. Lightning currents can follow wet ropes. To prevent blunt trauma the helmet should not be removed. Move as quickly as possible away from wire ropes and iron ladders. The crouch position should be adopted immediately if there is a sensation of hair standing on end. Crackling noises or a visible glow indicate an imminent lightning strike. Rescue of lightning victims may be hazardous. Airborne helicopters can be struck by lightning with disastrous effects. It is prudent o gosh to wait until the danger of further strikes has passed. Treatment of lightning victims is based upon the ABCs – (Assessment) airway, breathing and circulation. Victims who are not breathing can often be resuscitated and should be helped first. Respiratory arrest may be prolonged, but the prognosis can be excellent if breathing is supported. Standard Advanced Life Support (ALS), if necessary, should be given at the scene.

Lightning strike is an environmental phenomenon that dominates the factors of supplemental deaths as well as injury due to its extremely high current and voltage surge. Many fatalities caused by lightning have been reported whereby some electricity physics pdf were deaths and some were able to survive with injuries gas nozzle prank either on a short or long term effect with permanent injury. Since Malaysia is one of the countries in the … [Show full abstract] world with very high lightning activities, a laudable statistics data about death and injuries is needed to increase public awareness on the dangers of lightning. This work manifests an overview, recent statistical data and analysis on lightning fatalities in Malaysia which includes the year, gender, age, status, month, state, activities and location of where the victim was hit by lightning. It describes the favorable image to illustrate gsa 2016 new orleans the jeopardy of lightning to the public by employing case study and statistical analysis based on medical and newspaper report. Read more

This is the first investigation and analysis of lightning related incidents in Zambia. Two case studies on both human injuries and equipment damage at five sites are reported. Lightning injuries were mostly attributed to the lack of proper structural protection systems, although lack of awareness among the public may also contribute to the situation. Many injury mechanisms electricity estimated bills, including unsuccessful … [Show full abstract] upward streamers, may cause injuries. Design of lightning protection schemes should take social structures and affordability by the affected public into account. Losses in the power sector are excessively high in the region and seriously affect the operation of both business and domestic life. Replacement cost incurred by the power companies can be prohibitive. Lightning density and pattern in the localized areas, grounding systems of the installations types of electricity consumers, and specification and installation techniques of lightning arresters should be revisited in giving proper solutions to transformer and power line failures. View full-text

This is one of the first scientific investigations on lightning current and voltage distribution along Buddhist Stupa in Sri Lanka and elsewhere. Such distribution provide vital information on lightning safety concerns of people and objects outside electricity questions for class 10 the structure as the building is totally sealed. The metal casket of which the block of quartz is installed at the pinnacle of the Stupa, may act as … [Show full abstract] the point of interception with lightning stepped leader. Large hemi-spherically symmetric outer structure of the Stupa causes uniform distribution of current over its surface. Such distribution yields very low current density thus possibilities of side flashing or localized heating are minimized. Structure of the Stupa was analyzed as a collection of lumped circuit elements using MatLab and SimuLink software to show that there will be no dangerous potentials developed within possible arcing range to the surrounding, in the electricity and magnetism equations application of impulse current. Thinly distributed current, driven into the deeply laid foundation of the structure, prevents development of significant step potentials in the vicinity that could pose danger to the devotees. View full-text Discover more