Neb – energy information program – glossary gas efficient cars 2012

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Cap and Trade Programs: A cap-and-trade system limits the total level of specified pollutants that can be emitted in a given jurisdiction. Emissions allowances are allocated by various means to polluters which are required to hold permits for their emissions. A market for emission permits is established and market forces act to determine a price for those permits. The benefit of such a system is those that can reduce their emissions at a cost that is lower than the permit price will choose to do so. Those for whom it is more expensive to reduce emissions will prefer to purchase a permit, meaning emission reductions are achieved in an economically efficient manner.

Carbon pricing: Carbon pricing is a means of attaching a cost to the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere. There are two main types of carbon pricing: a carbon tax applied to the carbon content of fossil fuels and a cap-and-trade system. Carbon pricing improves the relative competitiveness of renewable energy sources compared to fossil fuel sources.

Catalytic Cracking: A secondary crude oil refining process where a catalytic agent is used to break down larger heavier, less valuable hydrocarbons such as vacuum gas oil or resid into lighter, higher-value products (gasoline and diesel). It is one of the most important conversion processes in a refinery, allowing it to increase the production of light products at refineries.

Catalytic Reforming: A refining process involving heat, pressure and catalysts in order to convert low octane naphtha from crude oil distillation into high-octane reformate, a premium component for gasoline blending and petrochemical feedstocks. f gas regulations High purity hydrogen is produced as a by-product which can be used for other refinery processes.

Coke: A carbon-rich solid that is created when heavy crude oil (including bitumen) is heated to high temperatures to crack it into lighter oils and natural gas liquids. Also, a carbon-rich solid that is created when coal is heated to high temperatures in an airless oven to drive off any water, gas, and coal tar inside the coal. Coke is largely burned in blast furnaces during the smelting of steel.

Coking: When high temperatures are applied to heavy crude oil (including bitumen) to crack it into lighter oils and natural gas liquids while also creating a solid, carbon-rich byproduct called coke. Also, when coal is baked in an airless oven at high temperatures so that the any water, gas, and coal tar inside the coal is driven off and a solid, carbon-rich product called coke remains.

Conversion or Cracking Refineries: Includes the processes in a Hydroskimming Refinery plus catalytic cracking and/or hydrocracking units. These conversion processes transform heavy products from distillation (mostly heavy gas oil) into lighter products, suitable for gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel production and petrochemical feedstock. Conversion refineries are able to increase the yield of light, high-value products from the crude oil processed at the refinery.

Cooling Degree Days (CDD): CDD is an index that represents cooling demand for homes, businesses, etc. electricity projects ks2 CDD is the cumulative number of days in a year for which the mean temperature is above a base temperature. In Canada, Environment Canada uses 18 degrees Celsius and others use 15.4 or 15.4 degrees Celsius as a benchmark. In the US, the base temperature is often 60 or 65 degrees Fahrenheit (16 or 18 degrees Celsius respectively).

Crude oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons in underground reservoirs that remains liquid at atmospheric pressure and temperature. Crude oil may contain small amounts of sulphur and other non-hydrocarbons, but it does not include liquids obtained from the processing of natural gas. It is refined into a variety of petroleum products including gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and petrochemicals which are used to make many consumer and industrial products.

Cyclic steam stimulation (CSS): A thermal process to produce in-situ bitumen. gas yourself in car Steam is injected into the reservoir through a well over a period of several months, decreasing the bitumen’s viscosity. Later, the steam is turned off and the emulsion of water and bitumen flows back into the well over a period of several months. The process is repeated for the economic life of the well.

Heat content (natural gas): The amount of energy per volume of the natural gas stream. Natural gas produced from oil and gas wells primarily consists of methane but can also contain natural gas liquids (NGLs) like ethane, propane, and butane. Because NGLs burn hotter than methane on a per volume basis, gas that is “rich” in NGLs has higher heat content than “lean” gas.

Heating Degree Days (HDD): HDD is an index that indicates heating demand for homes, businesses, etc. HDD is the cumulative number of days in a year for which the mean temperature falls below a base temperature. In Canada, Environment Canada uses 18 degrees Celsius and others use 15.4 or 15.4 degrees Celsius as a benchmark. gas emoji meaning In the US, the base temperature is often 60 or 65 degrees Fahrenheit (16 or 18 degrees Celsius respectively).

Hourly Ontario Energy Price (HOEP): Ontario electricity prices are influenced by two major components: the HOEP and the Global Adjustment. Ontario generators sell electricity in the wholesale market where the HOEP is determined. However, most of the generators are covered by contracts and regulations that guarantee specific rates for the electricity they produce. The Global Adjustment is the difference between the HOEP and those guaranteed rates. When the HOEP is lower than the contracted or regulated rates, the Global Adjustment is positive and represents a payment from consumers to generators. When the HOEP is higher than the guaranteed rates, the Global Adjustment is negative and represents a payment from generators back to consumers.

Hydroprocessing: Any of several chemical engineering processes including hydrogenation, hydrocracking and hydrotreating, especially as part of oil refining. Hydroprocessing is necessary to remove pollutants like sulfur, nitrogen and heavy metals from fuel oils, as well as in the process of catalytic hydrocracking, where large hydrocarbon molecules are cracked into shorter ones that can be used as fuel oils.

Hydroskimming Refineries: Includes crude distillation and support services as well as secondary processes such as catalytic reforming, hydro-treating and product blending. These refineries have the advantage over topping refineries that they can manufacture low sulphur diesel and heating oil and high-octane gasoline, but they may produce up to half of their output as fuel oil.

Real or constant dollar: Because of inflation, the purchasing power of the dollar changes over time. So that dollar values from one year can be compared to those of another year, they are converted from current (also called nominal or actual) dollars to constant (or real) dollars. q gastrobar leblon This is done by dividing the current dollar data by a price index that measures changes in the prices of goods and services over time. In this way, the impact of inflation is eliminated when comparing data.

Resources (Oil and Natural Gas): The remaining total volume of recoverable oil and natural gas thought to exist. Resources include deposits not economic to extract at current oil and gas prices, but may become economic as prices rise. Resources also include an undiscovered component, which may have been bypassed in current wells or have yet to be found. gas pump heaven Resources can also include an additional amount of oil and gas that may be recovered as technology improves beyond current capabilities.

Revenue support policies (Renewables): Policies which increase projects’ revenue or provide revenue certainty, often through long-term contracts. Long-term contracts or Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) are a method of support and they underpin the construction of most renewable projects in Canada. Contracts can be awarded through different mechanisms which vary in terms of objectives, level of support and overall design. See Requests for Proposals, Feed-in tariffs, Standard offer programs or Net-metering.

Rolled-in Tolls: Tolls resulting from a toll design methodology in which the capital and operating costs of new facilities are added to those of the existing facilities; i.e. there is one cost pool for all facilities. Tolls are designed to recover the annual cost of providing service. All shippers who receive the same service pay the same toll. Tolls only vary according to such factors as volumes and distance.