New use for waste coal – news – standard speaker

The black sand is silt, one of the coal wastes discarded by miners of yesteryear in the Foster Township area of Highland, a mile west of Eckley Miners Village Museum.

After engineers realized that fluidized bed boilers could burn waste coal, companies started building power stations — known locally as cogeneration plants — in 1987.

The land, owned by Jeddo Coal, includes two silt lagoons, now dry, that are being processed. 76 gas station hours There are culm banks of coarser coal, rock and other wastes. K gas oroville A smaller silt lagoon that off-roaders call The Arena provides a fuel source that Northampton will dig into later.

Direct expenditures from cogeneration companies hit a peak of $432 million a year. Gas efficient suv 2010 The companies do business with trucking firms, scientific consultants and other businesses that generate an estimated $736 million for the economy and support 3,600 jobs, according to a report commissioned last month by their trade association, ARIPPA.

Falling energy prices, pushed down by a ready supply of natural gas extracted from the Marcellus Shale formation in Pennsylvania and other states, hurt the cogenerators.

Last year, the cogeneration plants produced 33 percent less electricity, according to a report that Econsult Solutions of Philadelphia did for ARIPPA.

In addition to the economic changes, cogeneration companies wonder how new regulations within the president’s Clean Coal Plan will affect them.

When measured against current regulations, the waste coal plants tend to emit less mercury, a natural component of coal, than do new coal plants.

The president’s plan, though being contested in court now, could close some coal-burning plants to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which contribute to climate change.

“Our industry is heavily challenged,” Zielinski said. Gas city indiana post office “… E gaskell north and south Maybe power generation is not our priority. Electricity video ks1 Maybe land reclamation is our cup of tea.”

This year, Northampton won the National Award for Excellence in Surface Coal Mining from the United States Office of Surface Mining and Reclamation and Enforcement for reclaiming the Loomis culm bank in Nanticoke.

After companies reprocess silt, which flowed to lagoons with the wash water from old coal processing plants called breakers, less of the silt flies in the wind.

Rain percolates through the banks — Zielinski likens them to giant coffee filters — from which minerals and metals such as iron, aluminum and manganese leach into the water.

Ash can contain hazardous substances such as chromium and arsenic. Wireless electricity how it works A devastating spill from an ash pond eight years ago in Tennessee led the National Academy of Sciences to suggest improvements for classifying and disposal.

Northampton, however, doesn’t store ash in ponds, and Zielinski said the ash from the Anthracite Region of Northeastern Pennsylvania differs from the ash of bituminous coal from the Tennessee spill.

Hardened ash is relatively impervious, and workers cap it with clay or soil to further repel water. Zyklon b gas effects The workers slope the fill so the water will run off rather than percolate through the site, too. Electricity history united states An incline of about 2 percent prevents water from pooling on the surface but slows the runoff enough to prevent the fill from eroding, Zielinski said.

By reducing acid mine drainage, the cogeneration companies have reclaimed 1,200 miles of streams in Pennsylvania, according to the ARIPPA report.

After companies level piles, fill in watery pits and regrade highwalls or rock slopes that people or off-road vehicles could hurtle over, the land is ready for reuse.

As the industry contracted, however, the amount of waste coal reclaimed declined this year to 5 million tons, about half the annual amount removed and used during the period between 2010 and 2014.

At Highland, Zielinski looked beyond the black landscape to the north and west where maple trees showed their fall colors. Electricity 1 7 pdf Waste coal blocked the trees from view until Northampton started whittling away at the banks.

Zielinski pointed to where the company has planted trees on 15 acres already reclaimed. Electricity generation definition White dust coats another 20 acres. Gas in back relief Workers spread limestone while getting ready to replant that ground.

As Zielinski drove around other work sites in Highland and Eckely, he bounced over ruts and down rocky slopes in a pickup truck that already has survived 300,000 miles.

On Wednesday, the state announced it will provide funds to expand the Hazleton rail-trail to the museum at Eckley. Z gas ensenada Zielinski said one route would have passed through land that Northampton won’t finish reclaiming for years, but he is not sure of the latest route.

Tom Ogorzalek, who has won an award for his volunteer work on the trail, said the route will require a bridge near the south end of the Hazlebrook Tunnel, climb over Buck Mountain and approach the Buck Mountain Road before meeting the museum’s service entrance.

As Zielinski drove past rock piles, he said workers will use some of the rocks to build homes for bats, which have suffered drastic losses from infections of white-nose syndrome.

The Eckley cemetery, visible from the passenger side window of Zielinski’s truck, was so overgrown years ago that he barely saw the tombstones amid the trees and brush. Grade 6 electricity test Pruning afforded him a closer look at the graves, which date to the 1850s.

He said the pit is at the end of a geosyncline, a deposit of coal shaped like a canoe that stretched about two-thirds of a mile from bow to stern.

Given the current economy, Zielinski expects the job will last two to three years. Gas dryer vs electric dryer operating cost He said the company blends higher-energy fuel like silt with lower-grade materials to help the cogeneration plant’s boiler operate efficiently.

When studying sites, where he occasionally finds railroad spikes and hammers left by another generation of miners, Zielinski notices how his predecessors organized waste deposits. Electricity electricity lyrics Silt, which moved through pipes, remains in the lagoons where it settled.

Culm, which is short for culmination, is the rock that remained after sorting out the coal in a breaker, like the one that used to stand in Highland, but separation never was complete.

So will the clinkers — bits of black, tan and rust material. Electricity generation in india They fused like a popcorn ball in a furnace that kept the breaker warm during the winter, but were buried with other coal waste at Highland and Eckley.

Screening the waste coal to separate the large rocks from the finer, richer fuels like silt, is the most cost-effective method of finding fuel, Zielinski said.

In the liquid, coal and bony coal chunks that are part rock and part coal float, while unburnable rock sinks. 5 gases found in the environment Northampton pays a tax on each ton of coal sent through the liquid processing plant, just as they company would pay tax on freshly mined coal.

Pitch pines poked through the black sand. Sgas belfast They grow gnarled from withstanding wind that carves furrows in the dunes and scrapes away bark until downed limbs resemble drift wood.

“It seems like they’re hanging onto life,” said Zielinski, who considers the pines to be the Anthracite Region’s equivalent of the Joshua Tree National Park in the California desert.

Compared to West Virginia where miners removed mountain tops to uncover coal, Zielinski prefers restoring mine land in Northeastern Pennsylvania, where he grew up.